Ischemic colitis surgery

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Hamid Qazi, MD, BSc [2]

Overview

The mainstay of treatment for ischemic colitis is medical therapy. Surgery is usually reserved for patients with either sepsis, persistent fever and leukocytosis, peritoneal irritation, protracted pain, diarrhea or bleeding, protein-losing colopathy for more than 14 days, free intra-abdominal air, or endoscopically-proved extensive gangrene. Laparotomy confirms the diagnosis and all affected bowel is resected. 20% of patients with acute ischemic colitis will require surgery with an associated mortality rate of up to 60%. Ileocolostomy is performed in patients with right-sided ischemic colitis with viable ileum and transverse colon.

Indications

Surgery

  • Surgery for ischemic colitis is as follows:[1][2][3]
    • 20% of patients with acute ischemic colitis will require surgery which has an associated mortality rate of up to 60%.
    • Laparotomy confirms the diagnosis and all affected bowel is resected.
    • Extent of resection should be guided by the distribution of disease seen on preoperative studies
    • Resected segment should be examined in the operating room for mucosal injury.
  • Ileocolostomy is performed in patients with right-sided ischemic colitis with viable ileum and transverse colon.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Baixauli J, Kiran RP, Delaney CP (2003). "Investigation and management of ischemic colitis.". Cleve Clin J Med. 70 (11): 920–1, 925–6, 928–30 passim. PMID 14650467. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Theodoropoulou, Αngeliki; Κoutroubakis, Ioannis E (2008). "Ischemic colitis: Clinical practice in diagnosis and treatment". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 14 (48): 7302. ISSN 1007-9327. doi:10.3748/wjg.14.7302. 
  3. Longo WE, Ballantyne GH, Gusberg RJ (1992). "Ischemic colitis: patterns and prognosis.". Dis Colon Rectum. 35 (8): 726–30. PMID 1643995. 

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