Interleukin 3

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External IDsGeneCards: [1]
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Interleukin 3 (IL-3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL3 gene.[1][2]

Function

Interleukin 3 is an interleukin, a type of biological signal (cytokine) that can improve the body's natural response to disease as part of the immune system. It acts by binding to the interleukin-3 receptor.

Interleukin 3 stimulates the differentiation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells into myeloid progenitor cells or, with the addition of IL-7, into lymphoid progenitor cells. In addition, IL-3 stimulates proliferation of all cells in the myeloid lineage (granulocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells), in conjunction with other cytokines, e.g., Erythropoietin (EPO), Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IL-6. It is secreted by basophils and activated T cells to support growth and differentiation of T cells from the bone marrow in an immune response. Activated T cells can either induce their own proliferation and differentiation (autocrine signalling), or that of other T cells (paracrine signalling) – both involve IL-2 binding to the IL-2 receptor on T cells (upregulated upon cell activation, under the induction of macrophage-secreted IL-1). The human IL-3 gene encodes a protein 152 amino acids long, and the naturally occurring IL-3 is glycosylated. The human IL-3 gene is located on chromosome 5, only 9 kilobases from the GM-CSF gene, and its function is quite similar to GM-CSF.

Discovery

Interleukin 3 originally was discovered by JN Ihle in mice. He found a T cell derived factor that induced the synthesis of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in hematopoietic cells and termed it interleukin-3.[3][4]

Interactions

Interleukin 3 has been shown to interact with IL3RA.[5][6]

See also

References

  1. "Entrez Gene: IL3 interleukin 3 (colony-stimulating factor, multiple)".
  2. Yang YC, Ciarletta AB, Temple PA, Chung MP, Kovacic S, Witek-Giannotti JS, Leary AC, Kriz R, Donahue RE, Wong GG (October 1986). "Human IL-3 (multi-CSF): identification by expression cloning of a novel hematopoietic growth factor related to murine IL-3". Cell. 47 (1): 3–10. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(86)90360-0. PMID 3489530.
  3. Ihle JN, Pepersack L, Rebar L (June 1981). "Regulation of T cell differentiation: in vitro induction of 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in splenic lymphocytes from athymic mice by a unique lymphokine". J. Immunol. 126 (6): 2184–9. PMID 6971890.
  4. Ihle JN, Weinstein Y, Keller J, Henderson L, Palaszynski E (1985). "Interleukin 3". Meth. Enzymol. Methods in Enzymology. 116: 540–52. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(85)16042-8. ISBN 978-0-12-182016-9. PMID 3003517.
  5. Stomski FC, Sun Q, Bagley CJ, Woodcock J, Goodall G, Andrews RK, Berndt MC, Lopez AF (June 1996). "Human interleukin-3 (IL-3) induces disulfide-linked IL-3 receptor alpha- and beta-chain heterodimerization, which is required for receptor activation but not high-affinity binding". Mol. Cell. Biol. 16 (6): 3035–46. PMC 231298. PMID 8649415.
  6. Woodcock JM, Zacharakis B, Plaetinck G, Bagley CJ, Qiyu S, Hercus TR, Tavernier J, Lopez AF (November 1994). "Three residues in the common beta chain of the human GM-CSF, IL-3 and IL-5 receptors are essential for GM-CSF and IL-5 but not IL-3 high affinity binding and interact with Glu21 of GM-CSF". EMBO J. 13 (21): 5176–85. PMC 395466. PMID 7957082.

Further reading


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