Ifosfamide

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Ifosfamide
Black Box Warning
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Gloria Picoy [2]

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Black Box Warning

WARNING: MYELOSUPPRESSION, NEUROTOXICITY, AND UROTOXICITY
See full prescribing information for complete Boxed Warning.
Myelosuppression can be severe and lead to fatal infections. Monitor blood counts prior to and at intervals after each treatment cycle. CNS toxicities can be severe and result in encephalopathy and death. Monitor for CNS toxicity and discontinue treatment for encephalopathy. Nephrotoxicity can be severe and result in renal failure. Hemorrhagic cystitis can be severe and can be reduced by the prophylactic use of mesna.

Overview

Ifosfamide is an alkylating agent that is FDA approved for the treatment of germ cell testicular cancer. There is a Black Box Warning for this drug as shown here. Common adverse reactions include alopecia, nausea and vomiting, leukopenia, anemia, CNS toxicity, hematuria, and infection.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Ifosfamide is indicated for use in combination with certain other approved antineoplastic agents for third-line chemotherapy of germ cell testicular cancer.

  • Dosage:
  • 1.2 grams per m2 per day for 5 consecutive days
  • Treatment is repeated every 3 weeks or after recovery from hematologic toxicity

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Ifosfamide in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

  • Combinations therapy: Ifosfamide and mesna (3000 mg/m(2) each, infused daily as a continuous infusion on days 1 through 4), and vinorelbine (25 mg/m(2) as a rapid IV injection on days 1 and 5). The cycle was repeated every 21 days for a median of 6 cycles. [1]
  • Combination therapy: 5 cycles of epirubicin (60 mg/m(2)/day on days 1 and 2) and ifosfamide (1.8 g/m(2)/day on days 1 through 5) repeated every 3 weeks. Mesna was administered at 20% of the ifosfamide dose before and 4 and 8 hours after ifosfamide. [2]

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

Safety and effectiveness in children have not been established

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Ifosfamide in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

Contraindications

Ifosfamide for Injection is contraindicated in patients with:

  • Known hypersensitivity to administration of ifosfamide
  • Urinary outflow obstruction

Warnings

WARNING: MYELOSUPPRESSION, NEUROTOXICITY, AND UROTOXICITY
See full prescribing information for complete Boxed Warning.
Myelosuppression can be severe and lead to fatal infections. Monitor blood counts prior to and at intervals after each treatment cycle. CNS toxicities can be severe and result in encephalopathy and death. Monitor for CNS toxicity and discontinue treatment for encephalopathy. Nephrotoxicity can be severe and result in renal failure. Hemorrhagic cystitis can be severe and can be reduced by the prophylactic use of mesna.
Myelosuppression, Immunosuppression, and Infections

Treatment with ifosfamide may cause myelosuppression and significant suppression of immune responses, which can lead to severe infections. Fatal outcomes of ifosfamide-associated myelosuppression have been reported. Ifosfamide-induced myelosuppression can cause leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia (associated with a higher risk of bleeding events), and anemia. The nadir of the leukocyte count tends to be reached approximately during the second week after administration. When Ifosfamide for Injection is given in combination with other chemotherapeutic/hematotoxic agents and/or radiation therapy, severe myelosuppression is frequently observed. The risk of myelosuppression is dose-dependent and is increased with administration of a single high dose compared with fractionated administration. The risk of myelosuppression is also increased in patients with reduced renal function.

Severe immunosuppression has led to serious, sometimes fatal, infections. Sepsis and septic shock also have been reported. Infections reported with ifosfamide include pneumonias, as well as other bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections. Latent infections can be reactivated. In patients treated with ifosfamide, reactivation has been reported for various viral infections. Infections must be treated appropriately. Antimicrobial prophylaxis may be indicated in certain cases of neutropenia at the discretion of the managing physician. In case of neutropenic fever, antibiotics and/or antimycotics must be given. Close hematologic monitoring is recommended. White blood cell (WBC) count, platelet count and hemoglobin should be obtained prior to each administration and at appropriate intervals after administration. Unless clinically essential, Ifosfamide for Injection should not be given to patients with a WBC count below 2000/µL and/or a platelet count below 50,000/µL.

Ifosfamide for Injection should be given cautiously, if at all, to patients with presence of an infection, severe immunosuppression or compromised bone marrow reserve, as indicated by leukopenia, granulocytopenia, extensive bone marrow metastases, prior radiation therapy, or prior therapy with other cytotoxic agents.

Central Nervous System Toxicity, Neurotoxicity

Administration of ifosfamide can cause CNS toxicity and other neurotoxic effects. The risk of CNS toxicity and other neurotoxic effects necessitates careful monitoring of the patient. Neurologic manifestations consisting of somnolence, confusion, hallucinations, blurred vision, psychotic behavior, extrapyramidal symptoms, urinary incontinence, seizures, and in some instances, coma, have been reported following Ifosfamide for Injection therapy. There have also been reports of peripheral neuropathy associated with ifosfamide use.

Ifosfamide neurotoxicity may become manifest within a few hours to a few days after first administration and in most cases resolves within 48 to 72 hours of ifosfamide discontinuation. Symptoms may persist for longer periods of time. Supportive therapy should be maintained until their complete resolution. Occasionally, recovery has been incomplete. Fatal outcomes of CNS toxicity have been reported. Recurrence of CNS toxicity after several uneventful treatment courses has been reported. If encephalopathy develops, administration of ifosfamide should be discontinued.

Due to the potential for additive effects, drugs acting on the CNS (such as antiemetics, sedatives, narcotics, or antihistamines) must be used with particular caution or, if necessary, be discontinued in case of ifosfamide-induced encephalopathy.

Manifestations of CNS toxicity may impair a patient’s ability to operate an automobile or other heavy machinery.

Renal and Urothelial Toxicity and Effects

Ifosfamide is both nephrotoxic and urotoxic. Glomerular and tubular kidney function must be evaluated before commencement of therapy as well as during and after treatment. Monitor urinary sediment regularly for the presence of erythrocytes and other signs of uro/nephrotoxicity.

Monitor serum and urine chemistries, including phosphorus and potassium regularly. Administer appropriate replacement therapy as indicated. Renal parenchymal and tubular necrosis have been reported in patients treated with ifosfamide. Acute tubular necrosis, acute renal failure, and chronic renal failure secondary to ifosfamide therapy have been reported, and fatal outcome from nephrotoxicity has been documented.

Disorders of renal function, (glomerular and tubular) following ifosfamide administration are very common. Manifestations include a decrease in glomerular filtration rate, increased serum creatinine, proteinuria, enzymuria, cylindruria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, and glycosuria as well as tubular acidosis. Fanconi syndrome, renal rickets, and growth retardation in children as well as osteomalacia in adults also have been reported. Development of a syndrome resembling SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion) has been reported with ifosfamide.

Tubular damage may become apparent during therapy, months or even years after cessation of treatment. Glomerular or tubular dysfunction may resolve with time, remain stable, or progress over a period of months or years, even after completion of ifosfamide treatment.

The risk and expected benefits of ifosfamide therapy should be carefully weighed when considering the use of ifosfamide in patients with preexisting renal impairment or reduced nephron reserve.

Urotoxic side effects, especially hemorrhagic cystitis, have been very commonly associated with the use of Ifosfamide for Injection. These urotoxic effects can be reduced by prophylactic use of mesna.

Hemorrhagic cystitis requiring blood transfusion has been reported with ifosfamide. The risk of hemorrhagic cystitis is dose-dependent and increased with administration of single high doses compared to fractionated administration. Hemorrhagic cystitis after a single dose of ifosfamide has been reported. Past or concomitant radiation of the bladder or busulfan treatment may increase the risk for hemorrhagic cystitis.

Before starting treatment, it is necessary to exclude or correct any urinary tract obstructions.

During or immediately after administration, adequate amounts of fluid should be ingested or infused to force dieresis in order to reduce the risk of urinary tract toxicity. Obtain a urinalysis prior to each dose of Ifosfamide for Injection. If microscopic hematuria (greater than 10 RBCs per high power field) is present, then subsequent administration should be withheld until complete resolution. Further administration of Ifosfamide for Injection should be given with vigorous oral or parenteral hydration.

Ifosfamide should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with active urinary tract infections.

Cardiotoxicity

Manifestations of cardiotoxicity reported with ifosfamide treatment include:

Fatal outcome of ifosfamide-associated cardiotoxicity has been reported.

The risk of developing cardiotoxic effects is dose-dependent. It is increased in patients with prior or concomitant treatment with other cardiotoxic agents or radiation of the cardiac region and, possibly, renal impairment.

Particular caution should be exercised when ifosfamide is used in patients with risk factors for cardiotoxicity and in patients with preexisting cardiac disease.

Pulmonary Toxicity

Interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, and other forms of pulmonary toxicity have been reported with ifosfamide treatment. Pulmonary toxicity leading to respiratory failure as well as fatal outcome has also been reported. Monitor for signs and symptoms of pulmonary toxicity and treat as clinically indicated.

Secondary Malignancies

Treatment with ifosfamide involves the risk of secondary tumors and their precursors as late sequelae. The risk of myelodysplastic alterations, some progressing to acute leukemias, is increased. Other malignancies reported after use of ifosfamide or regimens with ifosfamide include lymphoma, thyroid cancer, and sarcomas.

The secondary malignancy may develop several years after chemotherapy has been discontinued.

Veno-occlusive Liver Disease

Veno-occlusive liver disease has been reported with chemotherapy that included ifosfamide.

Anaphylactic/Anaphylactoid Reactions and Cross-sensitivity

Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in association with ifosfamide. Cross-sensitivity between oxazaphosphorine cytotoxic agents has been reported.

Impairment of Wound Healing

Ifosfamide may interfere with normal wound healing.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted from widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. The adverse reactions and frequencies below are based on 30 publications describing clinical experience with fractionated administration of ifosfamide as monotherapy with a total dose of 4 to 12 g/m2 per course.

Ifosfamide Adverse reactions.png

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been reported in the post-marketing experience, listed by MedDRA System Organ Class (SOC), then by Preferred Term in order of severity, where feasible. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

INFECTIONS AND INFESTATIONS

The following manifestations have been associated with myelosuppression and immunosuppression caused by ifosfamide: increased risk for and severity of infections†, pneumonias†, sepsis and septic shock (including fatal outcomes), as well as reactivation of latent infections, including viral hepatitis†, Pneumocystis jiroveci†, herpes zoster, Strongyloides, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy†, and other viral and fungal infections.

† Severe immunosuppression has led to serious, sometimes fatal, infections.

NEOPLASMS, BENIGN AND MALIGNANT AND UNSPECIFIED (INCL CYSTS AND POLYPS)

As treatment-related secondary malignancy*, Acute leukemia* (Acute myeloid leukemia)*, Acute promyelocytic leukemia*, Acute lymphocytic leukemia*, Myelodysplastic syndrome, Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma), Sarcomas*, Renal cell carcinoma, Thyroid cancer.

BLOOD AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEM DISORDERS

Hematotoxicity*, Myelosuppression manifested as Bone marrow failure, Agranulocytosis; Febrile bone marrow aplasia; Disseminated intravascular coagulation, Hemolytic uremic syndrome, Hemolytic anemia, Neonatal anemia, Methemoglobinemia.

IMMUNE SYSTEM DISORDERS

Angioedema*, Anaphylactic reaction, Immunosuppression, Urticaria, Hypersensitivity reaction.

ENDOCRINE DISORDERS

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)

METABOLISM AND NUTRITION DISORDERS

Tumor lysis syndrome, Metabolic acidosis, Hypokalemia, Hypocalcemia, Hypophosphatemia, Hyperglycemia, Polydipsia.

PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS

Panic attack, Catatonia, Mania, Paranoia, Delusion, Delirium, Bradyphrenia, Mutism, Mental status change, Echolalia, Logorrhea, Perseveration, Amnesia.

NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS

Convulsion*, Status epilepticus (convulsive and nonconvulsive), reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome, Leukoencephalopathy, Extrapyramidal disorder, Asterixis, Movement disorder, Polyneuropathy, Dysesthesia, Hypothesia, Paresthesia, Neuralgia, Gait disturbance, Fecal incontinence, Dysarthria.

EYE DISORDERS

Visual impairment, Vision blurred, Conjunctivitis, Eye irritation

EAR AND LABYRINTH DISORDERS

Deafness, Hypoacusis, Vertigo, Tinnitus

CARDIAC DISORDERS

Cardiotoxicity*, Cardiac arrest*, Ventricular fibrillation*, Ventricular tachycardia*, Cardiogenic shock*, Myocardial infarction*, Cardiac failure*, Bundle branch block left, Bundle branch block right, Pericardial effusion, Myocardial hemorrhage, Angina pectoris, Left ventricular failure, Cardiomyopathy*, Congestive cardiomyopathy, Myocarditis*, Arrhythmia*, Pericarditis, Atrial fibrillation, Atrial flutter, Bradycardia, Supraventricular extrasystoles, Premature atrial contractions, Ventricular extrasystoles, Myocardial depression, Palpitations, Ejection fraction decreased*, Electrocardiogram ST-segment abnormal, Electrocardiogram T-wave inversion, Electrocardiogram QRS complex abnormal

VASCULAR DISORDERS

Pulmonary embolism, Deep vein thrombosis, Capillary leak syndrome, Vasculitis, Hypertension, Flushing, Blood pressure decreased

RESPIRATORY, THORACIC, AND MEDIASTINAL DISORDERS

Respiratory failure*, Acute respiratory distress syndrome*, Pulmonary hypertension*, Interstitial lung disease* as manifested by Pulmonary fibrosis*, Alveolitis allergic, Interstitial pneumonitis, Pneumonitis*, Pulmonary edema*,Pleural effusion, Bronchospasm, Dyspnea, Hypoxia, Cough

GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS

Cecitis, Colitis, Enterocolitis, Pancreatitis, Ileus, Gastrointestinal hemorrhage, Mucosal ulceration, Constipation, Abdominal pain, Salivary hypersecretion.

HEPATOBILIARY DISORDERS

Hepatic failure*, Hepatitis fulminant*, Veno-occlusive liver disease, Portal vein thrombosis, Cytolytic hepatitis, Cholestasis

SKIN AND SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE DISORDERS

Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, Radiation recall dermatitis, Skin necrosis, Facial swelling, Petechiae, Macular rash, Rash, Pruritus, Erythema, Skin hyperpigmentation, Hyperhidrosis, nail disorder.

MUSCULOSKELETAL AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDER

Rhabdomyolysis, Osteomalacia, Rickets, Growth retardation, Myalgia, Arthralgia, Pain in extremity, Muscle twitching

RENAL AND URINARY DISORDERS

Fanconi syndrome, Tubulointerstitial nephritis, Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, Phosphaturia, Aminoaciduria, Polyuria, Enuresis, Feeling of residual urine

Fatal outcomes from acute and chronic renal failure have been documented.

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM AND BREAST DISORDERS

Infertility, Ovarian failure, Premature menopause, Amenorrhea, Ovarian disorder, Ovulation disorder, Azoospermia, Oligospermia, Impairment of spermatogenesis, Blood estrogen decreased, Blood gonadotrophin increased

CONGENITAL, FAMILIAL AND GENETIC DISORDERS

Fetal growth retardation

GENERAL DISORDERS AND ADMINISTRATIVE SITE CONDITIONS

Multi-organ failure*, General physical deterioration, Injection/Infusion site reactions including swelling, inflammation, pain, erythema, tenderness, pruritus; Chest pain, Edema, Mucosal inflammation, Pain, Pyrexia, Chills

  • Including fatal outcomes

Drug Interactions

Ifosfamide is a substrate for both CYP3A4 and CYP2B6.

Inducers of CYP3A4

CYP3A4 inducers (e.g., carbamazepine, phenytoin, fosphenytoin, phenobarbital, rifampin, St. John Wort) may increase the metabolism of ifosfamide to its active alkylating metabolites. CYP3A4 inducers may increase the formation of the neurotoxic/nephrotoxic ifosfamide metabolite, chloroacetaldehyde. Closely monitor patients taking ifosfamide with CYP3A4 inducers for toxicities and consider dose adjustment.

Inhibitors of CYP3A4

CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, sorafenib, aprepitant, fosaprepitant, grapefruit, grapefruit juice) may decrease the metabolism of ifosfamide to its active alkylating metabolites, perhaps decreasing the effectiveness of ifosfamide treatment.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA): D Ifosfamide for Injection can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Fetal growth retardation and neonatal anemia have been reported following exposure to ifosfamide-containing chemotherapy regimens during pregnancy.

Animal studies indicate that ifosfamide is capable of causing gene mutations and chromosomal damage in vivo. In pregnant mice, resorptions increased and anomalies were present at day 19 after a 30 mg/m2 dose of ifosfamide was administered on day 11 of gestation. Embryo-lethal effects were observed in rats following the administration of 54 mg/m2 doses of ifosfamide from the 6th through the 15th day of gestation and embryotoxic effects were apparent after dams received 18 mg/m2 doses over the same dosing period. Ifosfamide is embryotoxic to rabbits receiving 88 mg/m2/day doses from the 6th through the 18th day after mating. The number of anomalies was also significantly increased over the control group.

Women should not become pregnant and men should not father a child during therapy with ifosfamide. Further, men should not father a child for up to 6 months after the end of therapy. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug or after treatment, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus.
Pregnancy Category (AUS): D There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Ifosfamide in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Ifosfamide during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

Ifosfamide is excreted in breast milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse events and the tumorigenicity shown for ifosfamide in animal studies, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Women must not breastfeed during treatment with ifosfamide.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness have not been established in pediatric patients.

Geriatic Use

In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

A study of patients 40 to 71 years of age indicated that elimination half-life appears to increase with advancing age. This apparent increase in half-life appeared to be related to increases in volume of distribution of ifosfamide with age. No significant changes in total plasma clearance or renal or non-renal clearance with age were reported.

Ifosfamide and its metabolites are known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Ifosfamide with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Ifosfamide with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

No formal studies were conducted in patients with renal impairment. Ifosfamide and its metabolites are known to be excreted by the kidneys and may accumulate in plasma with decreased renal function. Patients with renal impairment should be closely monitored for toxicity and dose reduction may be considered. Ifosfamide and its metabolites are dialyzable.

Hepatic Impairment

No formal studies were conducted in patients with hepatic impairment. Ifosfamide is extensively metabolized in the liver and forms both efficacious and toxic metabolites. Ifosfamide for Injection should be given cautiously to patients with impaired hepatic function.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

Ifosfamide interferes with oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Amenorrhea, azoospermia, and sterility in both sexes have been reported. Development of sterility appears to depend on the dose of ifosfamide, duration of therapy, and state of gonadal function at the time of treatment. Sterility may be irreversible in some patients.

Female Patients

Amenorrhea has been reported in patients treated with ifosfamide. The risk of permanent chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea increases with age. Pediatric patients treated with ifosfamide during prepubescence subsequently may not conceive and those who retain ovarian function after completing treatment are at increased risk of developing premature menopause.

Male Patients

Men treated with ifosfamide may develop oligospermia or azoospermia. Pediatric patients treated with ifosfamide during prepubescence might not develop secondary sexual characteristics normally, but may have oligospermia or azoospermia. Azoospermia may be reversible in some patients, though the reversibility may not occur for several years after cessation of therapy. Sexual function and libido are generally unimpaired in these patients. Some degree of testicular atrophy may occur. Patients treated with ifosfamide have subsequently fathered children.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Ifosfamide in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

Intravenous

Monitoring

There is limited information regarding Ifosfamide Monitoring in the drug label.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding the compatibility of Ifosfamide and IV administrations.

Overdosage

  • No specific antidote for Ifosfamide for Injection is known.
  • Patients who receive an overdose should be closely monitored for the development of toxicities. Serious consequences of overdosage include manifestations of dose-dependent toxicities such as CNS toxicity, nephrotoxicity, myelosuppression, and mucositis.
  • Management of overdosage would include general supportive measures to sustain the patient through any period of toxicity that might occur, including appropriate state-of-the-art treatment for any concurrent infection, myelosuppression, or other toxicity. Ifosfamide as well as ifosfamide metabolites are dialyzable.
  • Cystitis prophylaxis with mesna may be helpful in preventing or limiting urotoxic effects with overdose.

Pharmacology

Ifosfamide structure.png
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Ifosfamide
Systematic (IUPAC) name
N-3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1,3,2-oxazaphosphinan-2-amide-2-oxide
Identifiers
CAS number 3778-73-2
ATC code L01AA06
PubChem 3690
DrugBank DB01181
Chemical data
Formula C7H15Cl2N2O2P 
Mol. mass 261.1 g mol−1
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Synonyms 3-(2-chloroethyl)-2-[(2-chloroethyl)amino]tetrahydro-2H-1,3,2-oxazaphosphorine 2-oxide
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 100%
Metabolism Hepatic
Half life 60-80% in 72 hours
Excretion Renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

D(US)

Legal status

Prescription only

Routes intravenously

Mechanism of Action

Ifosfamide is a prodrug that requires metabolic activation by hepatic cytochrome P450 isoenzymes to exert its cytotoxic activity. Activation occurs by hydroxylation at the ring carbon atom forming the unstable intermediate 4-hydroxyifosfamide and its ring-opened aldo tautomer, which decomposes to yield the cytotoxic and urotoxic compound acrolein and an alkylating isophosphoramide mustard as well as multiple other nontoxic products. The exact mechanism of action of ifosfamide has not been determined, but its cytotoxic action is primarily through DNA crosslinks caused by alkylation by the isophosphoramide mustard at guanine N-7 positions. The formation of inter- and intra-strand cross-links in the DNA results in cell death.

Structure

The molecular formula is C7H15Cl2N2O2P and its molecular weight is 261.1. Its structural formula is:

Ifosfamide structural formula.png

Pharmacodynamics

There is limited information regarding Ifosfamide Pharmacodynamics in the drug label.

Pharmacokinetics

Ifosfamide exhibits dose-dependent pharmacokinetics in humans. At single doses of 3.8 to 5.0 g/m2, the plasma concentrations decay biphasically and the mean terminal elimination half-life is about 15 hours. At doses of 1.6 to 2.4 g/m2/day, the plasma decay is monoexponential and the terminal elimination half-life is about 7 hours.

Ifosfamide exhibits time-dependent pharmacokinetics in humans. Following intravenous administration of 1.5 g/m2 over 0.5 hour once daily for 5 days to 15 patients with neoplastic disease, a decrease in the median elimination half-life from 7.2 hour on Day 1 to 4.6 hours on Day 5 occurred with a concomitant increase in the median clearance from 66 mL/min on Day 1 to 115 mL/min on Day 5. There was no significant change in the volume of distribution on Day 5 compared with Day 1.

Distribution

Ifosfamide volume of distribution (Vd) approximates the total body water volume, suggesting that distribution takes place with minimal tissue binding. Following intravenous administration of 1.5 g/m2 over 0.5 hour once daily for 5 days to 15 patients with neoplastic disease, the median Vd of ifosfamide was 0.64 L/kg on Day 1 and 0.72 L/kg on Day 5. Ifosfamide shows little plasma protein binding. Ifosfamide and its active metabolites are extensively bound by red blood cells. Ifosfamide is not a substrate for P-glycoprotein.

Metabolism

Ifosfamide is extensively metabolized in humans through two metabolic pathways: ring oxidation ("activation") to form the active metabolite, 4-hydroxy-ifosfamide and side-chain oxidation to form the inactive metabolites, 3-dechloro-ethylifosfamide or 2-dechloroethylifosfamide with liberation of the toxic metabolite, chloroacetaldehyde. Small quantities (nmol/mL) of ifosfamide mustard and 4-hydroxyifosfamide are detectable in human plasma. Metabolism of ifosfamide is required for the generation of the biologically active species and while metabolism is extensive, it is also quite variable among patients.

Excretion

After administration of doses of 5 g/m2 of 14C-labeled ifosfamide, from 70% to 86% of the dosed radioactivity was recovered in urine as metabolites, with about 61% of the dose excreted as parent compound. At doses of 1.6 to 2.4 g/m2 only 12% to 18% of the dose was excreted in the urine as unchanged drug within 72 hours. Two different dechloroethylated derivatives of ifosfamide, 4-carboxyifosfamide, thiodiacetic acid and cysteine conjugates of chloroacetic acid have been identified as the major urinary metabolites of ifosfamide in humans and only small amounts of 4-hydroxyifosfamide and acrolein are present.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis

Ifosfamide has been shown to be carcinogenic in rats when administered by intraperitoneal injection at 6 mg/kg (37 mg/m2, or about 3% of the daily human dose on a mg/m2 basis) 3 times a week for 52 weeks. Female rats had a significantly higher incidence of uterine leiomyosarcomas and mammary fibroadenomas than vehicle controls.

Mutagenesis

The mutagenic potential of ifosfamide has been documented in bacterial systems in vitro and mammalian cells in vivo. In vivo, ifosfamide has induced mutagenic effects in mice and Drosophila melanogaster germ cells, and has induced a significant increase in dominant lethal mutations in male mice as well as recessive sex-linked lethal mutations in Drosophila.

Clinical Studies

Patients with refractory testicular cancer (n=59) received a combination of ifosfamide, cisplatin, and either etoposide (VePesid) or vinblastine (VIP) as third-line therapy or later. The selection of etoposide or vinblastine (“V” in the VIP regimen) was guided by the therapeutic effect achieved with prior regimens. The contribution of ifosfamide to the VIP combination was determined in patients treated with cisplatin-etoposide prior to ifosfamide- cisplatin-etoposide or those who received cisplatin-vinblastine prior to ifosfamide-cisplatin-vinblastine.

A total of 59 patients received a third-line salvage regimen which consisted of ifosfamide 1.2 g/m2/day intravenously on days 1 to 5, cisplatin 20 mg/m2/day intravenously on days 1 to 5, and either etoposide 75 mg/m2/day intravenously on days 1 to 5 or vinblastine 0.22 mg/kg intravenously on day 1. Efficacy results with the VIP regimen were compared to data pooled from six single agent phase II trials conducted between August 1980 and October 1985 including a total of 90 patients of whom 65 were eligible as controls of this study. Twenty-three patients in the VIP regimen became free of disease with VIP alone or VIP plus surgery, whereas a single patient in the historical control group achieved complete response. The median survival time exceeded two years in the VIP group versus less than one year in the control group. Performance status ≥ 80, embryonal carcinoma and minimal disease were favorable prognostic factors for survival. In all prognostic categories, the difference between VIP and historical controls remained highly significant.

Ifosfamide Efficacy results.png

In a study, 50 fully evaluable patients with germ cell testicular cancer were treated with Ifosfamide for Injection in combination with cisplatin and either vinblastine or etoposide after failing (47 of 50 patients) at least two prior chemotherapy regimens consisting of cisplatin/vinblastine/bleomycin, (PVB), cisplatin/vinblastine/actinomycin D/bleomycin/cyclophosphamide, (VAB6), or the combination of cisplatin and etoposide. Patients were selected for remaining cisplatin sensitivity because they had previously responded to a cisplatin containing regimen and had not progressed while on the cisplatin containing regimen or within 3 weeks of stopping it. Patients served as their own control based on the premise that long term complete responses could not be achieved by retreatment with a regimen to which they had previously responded and subsequently relapsed.

Ten of 50 fully evaluable patients were still alive 2 to 5 years after treatment. Four of the 10 long term survivors were rendered free of cancer by surgical resection after treatment with the ifosfamide regimen; median survival for the entire group of 50 fully evaluable patients was 53 weeks.

How Supplied

  • Ifosfamide for injection 1 gr.
  • NDC 0338-3991-01
  • Single-Dose Vial


  • Ifosfamide for injection 3 gr.
  • NDC 0338-3993-01
  • Single-Dose Vial

Storage

Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F).

Images

Drug Images

Package and Label Display Panel

Ifosfamide 1 g FDA package label.png
Ifosfamide 3 g FDA package label.png

Patient Counseling Information

Inform patients of the risks associated with the use of Ifosfamide for Injection as well as the plan for regular blood monitoring during therapy.

Specifically inform patients of the following:

  • Treatment with ifosfamide may cause myelosuppression which can be severe and lead to fatal outcome. Significant suppression of immune responses can also occur which can lead to severe infections. Latent infections can be reactivated. Patients should report fever or other symptoms of an infection.
  • The risk of bleeding and anemia.
  • The risk of CNS toxicity and other neurotoxic effects with fatal outcome.
  • The risk of bladder and kidney toxicity. Patients should be aware of the need to increase fluid intake and frequent voiding to prevent accumulation in the bladder.
  • The risk of cardiotoxicity and fatal outcome. Patients should report preexisting cardiac disease.
  • The risk of pulmonary toxicity leading to respiratory failure with fatal outcome.
  • The risk of secondary malignancies due to therapy.
  • The risk of veno-occlusive liver disease.
  • The potential hazard to a fetus if a patient becomes pregnant or fathers a child during therapy and for up to 6 months after therapy. Effective methods of contraception should be used during therapy and for up to 6 months after therapy.
  • The potential for serious adverse reactions and tumorigenicity when children are breastfed during therapy.
  • The risk of amenorrhea, premature menopause, and sterility.
  • The risk of alopecia, wound healing, and other serious skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders.
  • Therapy may cause gastrointestinal disorders and alcohol may increase nausea and vomiting.
  • The risk of stomatitis and the importance of proper oral hygiene.
  • The risk of eye disorders such as visual impairment, blurred vision, and eye irritation.
  • The risk of ear and labyrinth disorders such as deafness, vertigo, and tinnitus.

Precautions with Alcohol

Alcohol-Ifosfamide interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

Look-Alike Drug Names

There is limited information regarding Ifosfamide Look-Alike Drug Names in the drug label.

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. Bonfante V, Viviani S, Santoro A, Devizzi L, Di Russo A, Zanini M; et al. (1998). "Ifosfamide and vinorelbine: an active regimen for patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's disease.". Br J Haematol. 103 (2): 533–5. PMID 9827930. 
  2. Frustaci S, Gherlinzoni F, De Paoli A, Bonetti M, Azzarelli A, Comandone A; et al. (2001). "Adjuvant chemotherapy for adult soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities and girdles: results of the Italian randomized cooperative trial.". J Clin Oncol. 19 (5): 1238–47. PMID 11230464. 
  3. "FDA LABEL: IFEX- ifosfamide injection, powder, for solution". 

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