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Icatibant is a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist that is FDA approved for the treatment of acute attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE) in adults 18 years of age and older. Common adverse reactions include pyrexia, transaminase increase, dizziness, and rash.
Adult Indications and Dosage
FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)
- The recommended dose of FIRAZYR is 30 mg administered by subcutaneous (SC) injection in the abdominal area. Additional doses may be administered at intervals of at least 6 hours if response is inadequate or if symptoms recur. No more than 3 doses may be administered in any 24 hour period.
- FIRAZYR should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. The drug solution should be clear and colorless. Do not administer if the product contains particulates or is discolored.
- Attach the provided 25 gauge needle to the syringe hub and screw on securely. Do not use a different needle. Disinfect the injection site and administer FIRAZYR by subcutaneous injection over at least 30 seconds.
- Patients may self-administer FIRAZYR upon recognition of symptoms of an HAE attack after training under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)
There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Icatibant in adult patients.
There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Icatibant in adult patients.
Pediatric Indications and Dosage
FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)
There is limited information regarding FDA-Labeled Use of Icatibant in pediatric patients.
Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)
There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Icatibant in pediatric patients.
There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Icatibant in pediatric patients.
- Laryngeal Attacks
- Given the potential for airway obstruction during acute laryngeal HAE attacks, patients should be advised to seek medical attention in an appropriate healthcare facility immediately in addition to treatment with FIRAZYR.
Clinical Trials Experience
- The safety of icatibant was evaluated in three controlled trials that included 223 patients who received FIRAZYR 30 mg (n=113), placebo (n=75), or comparator (n=38). The mean age at study entry was 38 years (range 18 to 83 years), 64% were female, and 95% were white. The data described below represent adverse reactions observed from the two placebo-controlled trials, consisting of 77 patients who received FIRAZYR at a dose of 30 mg SC, and 75 who received placebo.
- The most frequently reported adverse reactions (occurring in greater than 1% of patients and at a higher rate with FIRAZYR versus placebo) are shown in Table 1.
- Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
- The third trial was active-controlled and was comprised of 35 patients who received FIRAZYR 30 mg and 38 patients who received the comparator. Adverse reactions for FIRAZYR were similar in nature and frequency to those reported in Table 1.
- In all three controlled trials, patients were eligible for treatment of subsequent attacks in an open-label extension. Patients were treated with FIRAZYR 30 mg and could receive up to 3 doses of FIRAZYR 30 mg administered at least 6 hours apart for each attack. A total of 225 patients were treated with 1,076 doses of 30 mg FIRAZYR for 987 attacks of acute HAE. Adverse reactions similar in nature and frequency were observed to those seen in the controlled phase of the trials. Other adverse reactions reported included rash, nausea, and headache in patients exposed to FIRAZYR.
- The safety of self-administration was evaluated in a separate, open-label trial in 56 patients with HAE. In this trial, the safety profile of FIRAZYR in patients who self-administered FIRAZYR was similar in nature and frequency to that of patients whose therapy was administered by healthcare professionals.
- Similar adverse reactions have been observed in postmarketing use as compared to the clinical trials. Because these events are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
- ACE Inhibitors
Use in Specific Populations
- Pregnancy Category C
- There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Icatibant was not teratogenic in rats or rabbits; however, it caused delayed parturition, fetal death, and pre-implantation loss in rats and premature birth, abortion, fetal death, and pre-implantation loss in rabbits. FIRAZYR should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
- Delayed parturition and fetal death in rats occurred at 0.5 and 2-fold, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) (on an AUC basis at maternal doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg, respectively). Increased pre-implantation loss in rats occurred at 7-fold the MRHD (on an AUC basis at a maternal dose of 10 mg/kg). In rabbits, premature birth and abortion rates increased at a dose that was less than 1/40th the MRHD (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal dose of 0.1 mg/kg). Studies in rabbits also indicated that pre-implantation loss and increased fetal deaths occurred at 13-fold greater than the MRHD (on an AUC basis at a maternal dose of 10 mg/kg).
- Nonteratogenic effects: Impairment of pup air-righting reflex and decreased pup hair growth in rats occurred at 7-fold the MRHD (on an AUC basis at a maternal dose of 10 mg/kg).
- Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category
There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Icatibant in women who are pregnant.
Labor and Delivery
- There are no human studies that have investigated the effects of FIRAZYR on preterm labor or labor at term; however, animal studies showed that icatibant causes delayed parturition and associated fetal death in rats and premature birth and abortion in rabbits. Delayed parturition occurred in rats at 0.5-fold times the MRHD (on an AUC basis at a maternal dose of 1 mg/kg).
- Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when FIRAZYR is administered to a nursing woman. Icatibant is excreted into the milk of lactating rats.
- Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 18 years have not been established.
- Clinical studies of FIRAZYR did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Elderly patients are likely to have increased systemic exposure to FIRAZYR compared to younger (18-45 years) patients. Since other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in efficacy and safety between elderly and younger patients, no dose adjustment is recommended.
There is no FDA guidance on the use of Icatibant with respect to specific gender populations.
There is no FDA guidance on the use of Icatibant with respect to specific racial populations.
- Although a formal renal impairment study has not been conducted, 10 of 37 patients treated with FIRAZYR had hepatorenal syndrome with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) below 60 mL/min. FIRAZYR is cleared non-renally and hence it is not expected to show any change in systemic exposure in patients with impaired renal function. No dose adjustment is required in patients with renal impairment.
- FIRAZYR was studied in patients with mild to moderate (Child Pugh scores of 5 to 8) hepatic impairment. No change in systemic exposure is noted in these patient populations. No dose adjustment is required in patients with hepatic impairment.
Females of Reproductive Potential and Males
There is no FDA guidance on the use of Icatibant in women of reproductive potentials and males.
There is no FDA guidance one the use of Icatibant in patients who are immunocompromised.
Administration and Monitoring
There is limited information regarding Monitoring of Icatibant in the drug label.
There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Icatibant in the drug label.
- In a clinical study evaluating a 90 mg dose (30 mg in each of 3 subcutaneous sites), the adverse event profile was similar to that seen with 30 mg administered in a single subcutaneous site.
- In another clinical study, a dose of 3.2 mg/kg administered intravenously (approximately 8 times the therapeutic dose for HAE) caused erythema, itching and hypotension in healthy subjects. No therapeutic intervention was necessary.
There is limited information regarding Chronic Overdose of Icatibant in the drug label.
|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Mol. mass||1304.52 g/mol|
Mechanism of Action
- Icatibant is a competitive antagonist selective for the bradykinin B2 receptor, with an affinity similar to bradykinin. Hereditary angioedema is caused by an absence or dysfunction of C1-esterase-inhibitor, a key regulator of the Factor XII/kallikrein proteolytic cascade that leads to bradykinin production. Bradykinin is a vasodilator which is thought to be responsible for the characteristic HAE symptoms of localized swelling, inflammation, and pain. Icatibant inhibits bradykinin from binding the B2 receptor and thereby treats the clinical symptoms of an acute, episodic attack of HAE.
- FIRAZYR (icatibant) is a synthetic decapeptide with five non-proteinogenic amino acids. The chemical structure of icatibant acetate is presented in Figure 1.
- Chemical name: D-Arginyl-L-arginyl-L-prolyl-L[(4R)-4-hydroxyprolyl]-glycyl-L[3-(2-thienyl)alanyl]-L-seryl-D-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-ylcarbonyl)-L[(3aS,7aS)-octahydroindol-2-ylcarbonyl]-L-arginine, acetate salt
- FIRAZYR is provided as a sterile, isotonic, and buffered solution of icatibant acetate in a single-use, prefilled syringe for subcutaneous administration. Each mL of the solution contains 10 mg of icatibant (free base). Each prefilled syringe delivers 3 mL of solution equivalent to a 30 mg icatibant dose. The solution is clear and colorless.
- The solution also contains sodium chloride, glacial acetic acid, sodium hydroxide and water for injection with a pH of approximately 5.5. The solution does not contain preservatives.
- Pharmacological class: Icatibant is a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist.
- Following bradykinin challenge, intravenous administration of FIRAZYR caused dose and time-dependent inhibition of development of bradykinin-induced hypotension, vasodilation, and reflex tachycardia in healthy young subjects. FIRAZYR intravenous doses of 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg infused over 4 hours inhibited response to bradykinin challenge for 6 to 8 hours following completion of the infusion. Based on exposure-response analysis, a subcutaneous dose of 30 mg FIRAZYR is predicted to be effective against bradykinin challenge for at least 6 hours. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown.
- The effect of FIRAZYR 30 and 90 mg following a single subcutaneous injection on QTc interval was evaluated in a randomized, placebo-, and active-controlled (moxifloxacin 400 mg) four-period crossover thorough QT study in 72 healthy subjects. In a study with demonstrated ability to detect small effects, the upper bound of the one-sided 95% confidence interval for the largest placebo adjusted, baseline-corrected QTc based on individual correction method (QTcI) was below 10 ms, the threshold for regulatory concern. The dose of 90 mg is adequate to represent the high exposure clinical scenario.
- The pharmacokinetics of FIRAZYR has been characterized in studies using both intravenous and subcutaneous administration to healthy subjects and patients. The pharmacokinetic profile of FIRAZYR in patients with HAE is similar to that in healthy subjects.
- The absolute bioavailability of FIRAZYR following a 30 mg subcutaneous dose is approximately 97%. Following subcutaneous administration of a single 30 mg dose of FIRAZYR to healthy subjects (N=96), a mean (± standard deviation) maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of 974 ± 280 ng/mL was observed after approximately 0.75 hours. The mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) after a single 30 mg dose was 2165 ± 568 ng∙hr/mL, with no evidence of accumulation of icatibant following three 30 mg doses administered 6 hours apart. Following subcutaneous administration, plasma clearance was 245 ± 58 mL/min with a mean elimination half-life of 1.4 ± 0.4 hours and volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) of 29.0 ± 8.7 L.
- Icatibant is extensively metabolized by proteolytic enzymes to inactive metabolites that are primarily excreted in the urine, with less than 10% of the dose eliminated as unchanged drug. Icatibant is not degraded by oxidative metabolic pathways, is not an inhibitor of major cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes (CYP 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4) and is not an inducer of CYP 1A2 and 3A4.
- Special populations
- Hepatic Impairment
- The pharmacokinetic parameters of FIRAZYR were found to be generally comparable between healthy subjects (n=8) and mild to moderate (Child Pugh scores of 5 to 8) hepatic impaired patients (n=8) following a dose of 0.15 mg/kg/day as continuous intravenous infusion over 3 days. In a separate study, FIRAZYR clearance in subjects with a wide range of hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh scores of 7 to 15) was similar to that in healthy subjects. No dose adjustment is necessary for patients with impairment of hepatic function.
- Renal Impairment
- Since renal clearance of icatibant is a minor eliminating pathway, renal impairment is not expected to affect the pharmacokinetics of FIRAZYR and hence a formal renal impairment study was not conducted for FIRAZYR. In 10 patients with hepatorenal syndrome (GFR 30-60 mL/min), clearance of FIRAZYR was not dependent on renal function and therefore, did not show any observable differences in the plasma levels of icatibant or its metabolites compared to subjects with normal renal function. No dose adjustment is necessary for patients with impairment of renal function.
- Age and Gender
- Three 30 mg subcutaneous doses of FIRAZYR administered every 6 hours were studied in young (18 to 45 years of age) and elderly (over 65 years of age) healthy male and female subjects. Following single-dose administration of 30 mg subcutaneous FIRAZYR, elderly males and females showed approximately 2-fold higher AUC compared to young males and females, respectively. However, only minor differences (~12-14%) between Cmax of gender–matched elderly and young subjects were observed. Older subjects tend to exhibit lower clearance compared to younger subjects and therefore higher systemic exposure. Gender effect on FIRAZYR pharmacokinetics was also observed in addition to age effect. Clearance of FIRAZYR is significantly correlated with bodyweight with lower clearance values noted for lower bodyweights. Hence, females with typically lower body weights compared to males exhibit lower clearance values, resulting in approximately 2-fold higher systemic exposure (both AUC and Cmax) compared to males. Differences in efficacy and safety between elderly and younger patients and male and female patients have not been identified. Dose adjustment based on age and gender is not warranted.
- Drug Interactions
- Formal drug-drug interaction studies were not conducted with FIRAZYR. Icatibant metabolism is not mediated by CYP450 enzymes. In vitro study did not show any significant inhibition and/or induction of drug metabolizing CYP450 enzymes; therefore, metabolic drug interactions between FIRAZYR and CYP450 substrates, inhibitors and inducers are not expected.
- A two-year study was conducted in rats to assess the carcinogenic potential of FIRAZYR. No evidence of tumorigenicity was observed in rats at icatibant subcutaneous doses up to 6 mg/kg/day (approximately 6-fold greater than the Maximum Recommended Human Dose on an AUC basis).
- Icatibant tested negative for genotoxicity in the in vitro Ames bacterial reverse mutation test, in vitro Chinese hamster bone marrow chromosome aberration assay, and in vivo mouse micronucleus test.
- Daily subcutaneous administration of icatibant to rats and dogs caused ovarian, uterine, and testicular atrophy/degeneration and adverse effects on the mammary and prostate glands. In rats, testicular atrophy, reduced prostate gland secretion, decreased testosterone levels and degenenerate corpora lutea occurred at doses greater than or equal to 3 mg/kg (approximately 5-fold greater than the MRHD in males and 2-fold greater than the MRHD in females on an AUC basis) and a decrease in developing ovarian follicles, mammary gland masculinization, and uterine atrophy occurred at doses greater than or equal to 10 mg/kg (approximately 6-fold greater than MRHD in females on an AUC basis). In dogs, reduced sperm counts and uterine atrophy occurred at doses greater than or equal to 1 mg/kg (approximately 2-fold greater than the MRHD on an AUC basis). Atrophy of the testes and prostate with decreased testosterone levels, decreased ovary size and decreased number of developing follicles occurred at a dose of 10 mg/kg (approximately 30-fold greater than the MRHD in males and 15-fold greater than at the MRHD in females on an AUC basis).
- In contrast to the effects of daily icatibant administration, toxicity to the ovary, uterus, testis, mammary gland, and prostate did not occur in dogs treated twice a week for 9 months. AUC exposures from a dose of 3 mg/kg in these dogs were 5- and 3-fold the MRHD exposures in men and women, respectively. Sperm counts and testosterone remained unaffected over the course of the study in male dogs dosed twice a week.
- Reproduction studies in male mice and rats with daily administration of icatibant found no effects on fertility or reproductive performance with intravenous doses up 81 mg/kg (approximately 5-fold greater than the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) or subcutaneous doses up to 10 mg/kg (approximately 11-fold greater than the MRHD on an AUC basis), respectively.
- Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology
- The B2 receptor has been implicated in the cardioprotective effects of bradykinin and antagonism of this receptor could potentially have negative cardiovascular effects during reperfusion after acute ischemia. Icatibant decreased coronary blood flow in the isolated guinea pig heart and aggravated the duration of post-ischemic reperfusion arrhythmias in the isolated rat heart. Intracoronary infusion of icatibant in an anesthetized myocardial infarction dog model increased mortality rate 2-fold over saline ischemia. There is limited human experience in acute ischemia. FIRAZYR should be used during acute coronary ischemia, unstable angina pectoris, or in the weeks following a stroke only if the benefit exceeds the theoretical risk to the patient.
- The efficacy and safety of FIRAZYR for the treatment of acute attacks of HAE in adults were studied in three controlled clinical trials. Among the 223 patients in these studies, the mean age was 38 years, 64% were female, and 95% were white. Approximately 57% of patients reported use of attenuated androgens, antifibrinolytic agents, or C1 inhibitors. Response to therapy was primarily assessed using visual analog scores on a 100 mm scale and patient- and physician-reported symptom scores for abdominal and cutaneous pain and swelling.
- Trial 1 was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group study of 98 adult patients with a median age of 36 years. Patients who had developed moderate to severe cutaneous or abdominal or mild to moderate laryngeal attacks of HAE were randomized to receive either FIRAZYR 30 mg or placebo by subcutaneous injection. Patients with severe laryngeal attacks of HAE received open-label FIRAZYR 30 mg. The primary endpoint was assessed using a 3-item composite visual analog score (VAS), comprised of averaged assessments of skin swelling, skin pain, and abdominal pain. Response was defined as at least a 50% reduction from the pretreatment composite 3-itemVAS score (Figure 2). The median time to 50% reduction in symptoms for patients with cutaneous or abdominal attacks treated with FIRAZYR (n=43) compared to placebo (n=45) was 2.0 hours [95% CI 1.5, 3.0] versus 19.8 hours [95% CI 6.1, 26.3], respectively (p<0.001).
- Other evaluated endpoints included time to almost complete symptom relief (VAS<10 mm) and rescue medication use. In Trial 1, the median times to almost complete symptom relief were 8.0 versus 36.0 hours for FIRAZYR and placebo, respectively. In terms of rescue medication use, 3/43 (7%) patients treated with FIRAZYR used additional rescue medication in comparison to 18/45 (40%) patients treated with placebo.
- In a second placebo-controlled trial and an active-controlled trial, a total of 26 and 35 patients, respectively, received FIRAZYR 30 mg for the treatment of an acute HAE attack. Across the three trials, FIRAZYR had a median time to 50% reduction from baseline symptoms ranging from 2.0 to 2.3 hours.
- Recurrent attacks
- In all three controlled trials, patients were eligible for treatment of subsequent attacks in an open-label extension. Patients were treated with FIRAZYR 30 mg and could receive up to 3 doses of FIRAZYR 30 mg administered at least 6 hours apart for each attack. A total of 225 patients were treated with 1,076 doses of 30 mg FIRAZYR for 987 attacks of acute HAE in these trials. In an assessment of the first 5 FIRAZYR-treated attacks (621 doses for 582 attacks), the median times to a 50% reduction from the pretreatment composite 3-itemVAS score were similar across attacks (2.0, 2.0, 2.4, 2.0, 1.5 hours). The majority (93%) of these attacks of HAE were treated with a single dose of FIRAZYR.
- Laryngeal attacks
- A total of 60 patients with laryngeal attacks were treated with FIRAZYR in the controlled trials. Efficacy results were similar to those observed for non-laryngeal (cutaneous and abdominal) sites of attack.
- Self-administration of FIRAZYR by 56 patients was assessed in an open label trial. Patients who administered FIRAZYR during an acute attack of HAE had a median time to 50% reduction from the pretreatment composite 3-itemVAS score of 2.6 hours.
- FIRAZYR is supplied as a single-use, prefilled syringe for subcutaneous administration. Each syringe delivers 3 mL of a sterile solution of icatibant 30 mg (as icatibant acetate). Each glass syringe has a bromobutyl plunger stopper, which is not made of latex natural rubber.
- FIRAZYR is available in cartons containing one single-use, prefilled syringe and one 25 G Luer lock needle. NDC 54092-702-02.
- FIRAZYR is also available in a pack containing 3 cartons; each carton contains one single-use, prefilled syringe and one 25 G Luer lock needle. NDC 54092-702-03.
- Storage and Handling
- Keep out of the reach of children.
- Store between 2 - 25° C (36 - 77° F).
- Do not freeze.
- Store in carton until time of administration.
There is limited information regarding Icatibant Storage in the drug label.
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Patient Counseling Information
- Patients may self-administer FIRAZYR upon recognition of an HAE attack after training under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
- Patients with laryngeal symptoms should seek medical attention immediately in an appropriate healthcare facility after administration of FIRAZYR.
- Injection site reactions are reported in most patients after administration of FIRAZYR. Other adverse reactions reported after administration of FIRAZYR include pyrexia, increase in transaminases, dizziness, and rash.
- Tiredness, drowsiness, and dizziness have been reported following the use of FIRAZYR. Patients should be advised not to drive or use machinery if they feel tired or dizzy.
Precautions with Alcohol
- Alcohol-Icatibant interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.
Look-Alike Drug Names
There is limited information regarding Icatibant Look-Alike Drug Names in the drug label.
The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.