Hypotension causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Ogheneochuko Ajari, MB.BS, MS [2]

Overview

Hypotension could be due to hormonal changes, medication side effects, anemia, heart or endocrine problems or caused by widening of blood vessels and low blood volume.

Causes

Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Aortic aneurysm rupture, aortic arch syndrome, aortic isthmus stenosis, aortic regurgitation, aortic stenosis, aortocaval compression syndrome, atrial myxoma, atrioventricular node conduction block, B type natriuretic peptide, baroceptor dysfunction in the elderly, capillary leak syndrome, cardiac tamponade, cardiogenic shock, carotid sinus hypersensitivity, carotid sinus syndrome, coarctation of aorta, complete heart block, constrictive pericarditis, cor triatriatum, dehydration, dissecting aortic aneurysm, distributive shock, Eisenmenger's syndrome, embolism, endotoxic shock, gray baby syndrome, heart arrhythmia, heart block, heart failure, heart injury, hemorrhagic shock, hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, hypovolemic shock, Ibuprofen, idiopathic hypotension, iliac artery aneurysm rupture, internal bleeding, ischaemic heart disease, Lidocaine (ointment), myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, obstructive shock, orthostatic hypotension, pericardial effusion, pericarditis, perimyocarditis, Perphenazine, post-tussive syncope, postural hypotension, pulmonary embolism, shock, sick sinus syndrome, supraventricular tachycardia , syncope, tetralogy of Fallot, traumatic shock, tricuspid stenosis, vasovagal syncope, ventricular fibrillation, WPW syndrome
Chemical / poisoning Acetaldehyde, adiponitrile , Aldesleukin, copper, cyanides, demeton-S-methyl, diazinon , dioxathion, disulfoton , ethion , fensulfothion, fenthion, honey bee bite, indian tobacco, malathion, methidathion, methiocarb, methomyl, mushroom poisoning , parathion, phosdrin, poison hemlock, profenofos, scorpion bite, sodium nitrite, terbufos, tetraethyl pyrophosphate , tetrodotoxin, tobacco , wasp bite
Dermatologic Gray baby syndrome, mastocytosis
Drug Side Effect Acetaminophen and Oxycodone, Acetophenazine, Acetylcysteine, alcuronium, alfuzosin, aliskiren, alseroxylon alprostadil, ambenonium, ambrisentan, amifostine, Amikacin sulfate, aminoglutethimide, amitriptyline, amlodipine, Amobarbital sodium, amoxapine, amphotericin B, amrinone, amyl nitrate, antipsychotic agents, Amlodipine besylate and Valsartan, apomorphine, Aprepitant, azilsartan medoxomil, Aztreonam, Beractant, B type natriuretic peptide, baclofen, beta blockers, bethanechol, bethanidine, bortezomib, bosentan, bretylium, bromocriptine, bupivacaine, cabergoline, calcium channel blockers, candesartan, captopril, chloroquine, chlorpheniramine, chlorpromazine, chlorthalidone, Cidofovir, cilazapril, cinacalcet, cinnarizine, Clemastine, clevidipine, clomipramine, clonidine, clozapine, Cefaclor, colchicine, Corticorelin, cyclobenzaprine, Dapagliflozin, deserpidine, desferrioxamine, desipramine, Desmopressin, dexmedetomidine, Dexpanthenol, Dextran, Dinoprostone, diazoxide, dichlorvos , dicobalt edetate, dicrotophos , diltiazem, diphenhydramine, dipyridamole, disopyramide, distigmine, disulfiram, diuretics, Docetaxel, donepezil ,Dolasetron mesylate, dothiepin, doxazosin, doxepin, edetate disodium, Empagliflozin, enalapril, epidural anaesthesia, eplerenone, epoprostenol, etoposide, febuxostat, Felbamate, felodipine , fenoldopam, fentanyl, ferumoxytol, Fluphenazine, Flurazepam, formoterol, fosinopril, Fosphenytoin sodium, gadopentetate, general anaesthesia, gentamicin, Granisetron, Glucarpidase, glyceryl trinitrate, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, gray baby syndrome, guanadrel, guanethidine, guanfacine, haloperidol, hexamethonium, hydralazine, hydroxyzine, Hydrochlorothiazide, imipramine, indapamide, Indinavir, Indomethacin, indoramin, Interferon-gamma, interleukin 2, iobenguane I 123, iodine containing radiocontrast media, irbesartan, isosorbide dinitrate, isosorbide mononitrate, isoxsuprine, isradipine, Ixabepilone, ketanserin, labetalol, l-dopa, Leuprolide, Levalbuterol, levomepromazine, levosimendan, lidocaine , Lincomycin Hydrochloride, lisinopril, Lisinopril and Hydrochlorothiazide, lithium, lofexidine, losartan, mecamylamine, Meropenem, Methocarbamol, methyldopa, metirosine, metoclopramide, metolazone, Metyrapone, minoxidil, morphine, moxonidine, Meprobamate, Nabilone, nefazodone, neostigmine, niacin, nicorandil, nifedipine, nimodipine, Nitroglycerin, nitroprusside, nitric oxide, nortriptyline, olanzapine, olmesartan, omapatrilat, opioid poisoning, Oprelvekin, Oxaprozin, oxcarbazepine, Oxacillin, paliperidone, Panitumumab, Pegaspargase, Pegylated interferon alfa-2b, Pentamidine Isethionate, Penicillin G potassium, perazine, pergolide, Perphenazine phenothiazines, phenobarbital phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine, Pilocarpine, pimobendan, pinacidil, pipothiazine, Pirbuterol, piribedil, pramipexole, prazosin,Prochlorperazine, protamine sulfate, protriptyline, quetiapine, ramipril, Ramucirumab, rasagiline, reboxetine, reserpine, rilmenidine, rifaximin, Rimexolone, riociguat,risperidone, rituximab, rivastigmine, ropinirole, rotigotine, sassafras oil, Secobarbital sodium, serotonin syndrome, sildenafil, silodosin, Siltuximab, sodium nitroprusside, Sodium oxybate, spironolactone, streptokinase, sulphonamides, tacrine, tadalafil, tamsulosin, Teniposide, terazosin, tetrabenazine, thalidomide, Thallous Chloride Tl 201, trichophyton mentagrophytes and trichophyton rubrum,Thioridazine hydrochloride, Thiothixene,

Tiagabine, tizanidine, tolazoline, tramadol, travoprost, treprostinil, Trimethobenzamide, Trifluoperazine, trifluperidol, trimethaphan, trimipramine, tubocurarine, urapidil, valerian, valsartan, vardenafil, verapamil, ziconotide, zonisamide, zotepine

Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Achalasia-addisonianism-alacrima syndrome, ACTH deficiency, Addison's disease, addisonian crisis, adrenal hemorrhage, adrenogenital syndrome, adrenoleukodystrophy , Allgrove syndrome, APECED syndrome , B type natriuretic peptide, carcinoid syndrome , congenital adrenal hyperplasia, diabetes insipidus, diabetic autonomic neuropathy, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma, hypoaldosteronism, hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism, hypothyroidism, Myxedema, myxedema coma, panhypopituitarism, pituitary insufficiency, pseudohypoaldosteronism, Renon-Delille syndrome, serotonin syndrome, triple-A syndrome
Environmental Snake bite, zero gravity
Gastroenterologic Achalasia-addisonianism-alacrima syndrome, acute liver failure , acute pancreatitis, acute viral gastroenteritis, Allgrove syndrome, bowel strangulation, deglutition syncope, diarrhea, duodenal ulcer bleeding, gastric ulcer bleeding, gastric volvulus, hepatic vein thrombosis, hepatitis, intususception, mastocytosis , necrotizing enterocolitis, paralytic ileus, peritonitis , postprandial hypotension, retroperitoneal haemorrhage, small bowel obstruction, splenic rupture, superior mesenteric artery occlusion, triple A syndrome, tropical sprue , variceal bleeding, vomiting
Genetic Achalasia-addisonianism-alacrima syndrome, acute intermittent porphyria, Allgrove syndrome, APECED syndrome, Bartter syndrome, corticosteroid-binding globulin deficiency , familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy type 2, hereditary peripheral nervous disorder, hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 3, pseudohypoaldosteronism, Renon-Delille syndrome, Riley-Day syndrome, triple A syndrome, Wohlwill-Andrade syndrome
Hematologic Acute intermittent porphyria, anemia
Iatrogenic After a major surgery, blood transfusion , dialyzer hypersensitivity syndrome, epidural anesthesia, gastric acid stimulation test using histamines, general anesthesia, mechanical ventilation, post-operative, renal dialysis, transfusion reaction
Infectious Disease Acute viral gastroenteritis, botulism, cholera, dengue hemorrhagic fever, hantavirus, lassa fever, rocky mountain spotted fever , septic shock, septicemia , toxic shock syndrome, vibrio vulnificus, Waterhouse-Friederichsen syndrome, Weil syndrome
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Cervical spine injury, fracture of bone, vertebral fracture
Neurologic Autonomic failure, autonomic neuropathy, Binswanger's disease , Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome, diabetic autonomic neuropathy, DOPA decarboxylase deficiency, dopamine beta hydroxylase deficiency, dysautonomia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, Guillain-Barre syndrome, hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome, hereditary peripheral nervous disorder, hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 3, multiple system atrophy, neurogenic shock, Parkinson's disease, polyradiculitis, Riley-Day syndrome, seizures, Shy-Drager syndrome, syringomyelia, tabes dorsalis, vasovagal syncope, Wohlwill-Andrade syndrome
Nutritional / Metabolic Dehydration,excessive dieting,kwashiorkor
Obstetric/Gynecologic Aortocaval compression syndrome, ectopic pregnancy rupture, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, postpartum haemorrhage, pregnancy, puerpural shock, septic abortion , uterine rupture
Oncologic Atrial myxoma, carcinoid syndrome , mastocytosis , pheochromocytoma, serotonin-secreting tumor
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity Acetophenazine, alcuronium, alfuzosin, aliskiren, alseroxylon, ambenonium, ambrisentan, amifostine, aminoglutethimide, amitriptyline, amlodipine, amoxapine, amphotericin B, amrinone, antipsychotic agents, apomorphine, azilsartan medoxomil, baclofen, beta blockers, bethanechol, bethanidine, bortezomib, bosentan, bretylium, bromocriptine, bupivacaine, cabergoline, calcium channel blockers, candesartan, captopril, chloroquine, chlorpheniramine, chlorpromazine, chlorthalidone, cilazapril, cinnarizine, clevidipine, clomipramine, clonidine, colchicine, cyclobenzaprine, deserpidine, desferrioxamine, desipramine, dexmedetomidine, diazoxide, dichlorvos , dicobalt edetate, dicrotophos , diltiazem, diphenhydramine, dipyridamole, disopyramide, distigmine, diuretics, donepezil , dothiepin, doxazosin, doxepin, enalapril, epidural anaesthesia, eplerenone, epoprostenol, etoposide, felodipine , fenoldopam, fentanyl, fosinopril, general anaesthesia, glyceryl trinitrate, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, guanadrel, guanethidine, guanfacine, haloperidol, hexamethonium, hydralazine, hydroxyzine, imipramine, indapamide, indoramin, interleukin 2, irbesartan, isosorbide dinitrate, isosorbide mononitrate, isoxsuprine, isradipine, ketanserin, labetalol, l-dopa, levomepromazine, levosimendan, lidocaine , lisinopril, lithium, lofexidine, losartan, magnesium overdose, mecamylamine, methyldopa, metirosine, metolazone, minoxidil, morphine, moxonidine, nefazodone, neostigmine, niacin, nicorandil, nifedipine, nimodipine, nitroprusside, nortriptyline, olanzapine, , olmesartan, omapatrilat, opioid poisoning, paliperidone, pentamidine, perazine, pergolide, phenothiazines, phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine, pimobendan, pinacidil, pipothiazine, piribedil, pramipexole, prazosin, protamine sulfate, Paregoric, protriptyline, quetiapine, ramipril, rasagiline, reboxetine, reserpine, rilmenidine, risperidone, rituximab, ropinirole, rotigotine, sassafras oil, sildenafil, silodosin, sodium nitroprusside, spironolactone, streptokinase, sulphonamides, tacrine, tadalafil, tamsulosin, terazosin, tetrabenazine, tizanidine, tolazoline, tramadol, treprostinil, trifluperidol, trimethaphan, trimipramine, tubocurarine, urapidil, valerian, valsartan, vardenafil, verapamil, ziconotide, zotepine
Psychiatric Anorexia nervosa, depression
Pulmonary Post-tussive syncope, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, tension pneumothorax
Renal / Electrolyte Bartter syndrome, dehydration, familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy type 2, hypermagnesaemia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Amyloidosis, anaphylactic shock, anaphylactoid reaction, blood transfusion , dialyzer hypersensitivity syndrome, food additive allergy, Guillain-Barre syndrome, honey bee bite, mastocytosis, scorpion bite, transfusion reaction, urticaria, wasp bite, Wohlwill-Andrade syndrome, x-ray studies using contrast media
Sexual Renon-Delille syndrome
Trauma Blood vessel trauma, burns, cervical spine injury, chemical burn, fracture of bone, heart injury, pericardial effusion, shaken baby syndrome, tension pneumothorax, traumatic shock
Urologic No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Alcohol, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, decompression sickness, deglutition syncope, dehydration, fatigue, heat exhaustion, hypothermia, insufficient fluid intake, low salt diet, micturition syncope, prolonged bed rest, snake bite, syncope, volume depletion , zero gravity

Causes in Alphabetical Order

References


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