Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy historical perspective

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Soroush Seifirad, M.D.[2]

Overview

The first case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was described by in 1869 Henri Liouville in the Gazette Medecine Paris. In 1907 Dr. A. Schmincke, a German pathologist, described two hearts with left ventricular hypertrophy; both came from women in their mid-fifties. Levy and von Glahn in 1944, from Colombia University in New York, published a series of cases which resembles HCM. In 1949, William Evans, a London cardiologist, described familial occurrence of cardiac hypertrophy in a series of patients which were similar to those described in the paper by Levy and von Glahn. In 1961 Paré et al. reported thirty members of five generations of a French Canadian family in Quebec in whom the condition was inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. In 1958 Teare, an English pathologist, described eight cases of asymmetric cardiac muscle hypertrophy, he thought that they might be benign cardiac tumors. Seven of these caused sudden death in young adults. Teare named the condition “Asymetrical Hypertrophy of the Heart.” In 1959 Sir Russell Brock described a young man with angina and a subaortic stenosis and a subaortic intraventricular pressure gradient. Morrow and Braunwald published their first report in the same year, followed by several other reports. The sudden cardiac deaths of 387 young American athletes (under age 35) were analyzed in a 2003 medical review, and HCM was the leading cause of sudden cardiac death in athletes. In 1961, Morrow described a surgical procedure to relieve the obstruction, which is still the most widely used method of surgical treatment. In 1962, with respect to the observed intensification of obstruction in HCM with the beta-adrenergic agonists, Braunwald suggested the use of newly developed beta-blockers. In 1964, Braunwald reported beta-blockers beneficial hemodynamic effects. 1967, the clinical benefits of treatment with beta blockers in patients with HCM has been proved to the scientific society.


Historical Perspective

Discovery

  • The first case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was described by in 1869 Henri Liouville in the Gazette Medecine Paris. He described a 75-year-old woman who developed worsening dyspnea over several days. On physical examination, she had a systolic heart murmur. She died shortly after the presentation.[1] Liouville H. Rétrécissement cardiaque sous aortique. Gazette Medecine Paris. 1869;24:161–163.
  • In 1907 Dr. A. Schmincke, a German pathologist, described two hearts with left ventricular hypertrophy; both came from women in their mid fifties. [1]Schmincke A. Ueber linkseitige muskulose conustenosen. Deutsche Med Wochenschr. 1907;33:2082–2085.
  • Levy and von Glahn in 1944, from Colombia University in New York, published a series of cases which resembles HCM.[1] Levy RL, von Glahn WC. Cardiac hypertrophy of unknown cause. A study of the clinical and pathologic features in ten adults. Am Heart J. 1944;28:714–741.
  • In 1949, William Evans, a London cardiologist, described familial occurrence of cardiac hypertrophy in a series of patients which were similar to those described in the paper by Levy and von Glahn. [2]
  • In 1961 Paré et al. reported thirty members of five generations of a French Canadian family in Quebec in whom the condition was inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.[3]
  • In 1958 Teare, an English pathologist, described eight cases of asymmetric cardiac muscle hypertrophy, he thought that they might be benign cardiac tumors. Seven of these caused sudden death in young adults. Teare named the condition “Asymetrical Hypertrophy of the Heart.”[4]
  • In 1959 Sir Russell Brock described a young man with angina and a subaortic stenosis and a subaortic intraventricular pressure gradient. He mentioned: “That this is not an isolated case is made clear by the experience of Dr. Glenn Morrow who tells me he has operated on two similar cases in two young men in their early twenties; both survived. He has kindly allowed me to mention these prior to his own report of them (Morrow and Braunwald, Circulation, in press, 1959)." [5]
  • Morrow and Braunwald published their first report in the same year, followed by several other reports. [6]

Landmark Events in the Development of Treatment Strategies

  • In 1961, Morrow described a surgical procedure (myectomy) to relieve the obstruction,[7] which is still the most widely used method of surgical treatment.
  • In 1967, the clinical benefits of treatment with beta-blockers in patients with HCM has been proved to the scientific society. [10][11][1]

Impact on Cultural History

Famous Cases

The following are a few famous cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy:

  • Sir David Paradine Frost: A post-mortem following the death of popular TV presenter David Frost in 2013 showed he suffered from HCM, though it didn’t contribute to his death and his family wasn’t informed. The sudden cardiac death of his 31-year-old son in 2015 led the family to collaborate with the British Heart Foundation to raise funds for better screening.
  • The sudden cardiac deaths of 387 young American athletes (under age 35) were analyzed in a 2003 medical review, and HCM was the leading cause of sudden cardiac death in athletes.[12] Hence, there is a lengthy list of athletes that passed away because of HCM, among them are:
  • Reggie Lewis, Baltimore Basketball Player
  • Gaines Adams, American professional football player
  • Heath Benedict, Dutch-American professional football player
  • James Victor Cain, American professional football player
  • Mitchell Cole, English footballer (Soccer)

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Braunwald E (2012). "Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: The first century 1869-1969". Glob Cardiol Sci Pract. 2012 (1): 5. doi:10.5339/gcsp.2012.5. PMC 4239819. PMID 25610836.
  2. EVANS W (1949). "Familial cardiomegaly". Br Heart J. 11 (1): 68–82. doi:10.1136/hrt.11.1.68. PMC 503618. PMID 18113470.
  3. PARE JA, FRASER RG, PIROZYNSKI WJ, SHANKS JA, STUBINGTON D (1961). "Hereditary cardiovascular dysplasia. A form of familial cardiomyopathy". Am J Med. 31: 37–62. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(61)90222-4. PMID 13732753.
  4. TEARE D (1958). "Asymmetrical hypertrophy of the heart in young adults". Br Heart J. 20 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1136/hrt.20.1.1. PMC 492780. PMID 13499764.
  5. BROCK R (1959). "Functional obstruction of the left ventricle (acquired aortic subvalvar stenosis)". Guys Hosp Rep. 108: 126–43. PMID 13804574.
  6. MORROW AG, BRAUNWALD E (1959). "Functional aortic stenosis; a malformation characterized by resistance to left ventricular outflow without anatomic obstruction". Circulation. 20 (2): 181–9. doi:10.1161/01.cir.20.2.181. PMID 13671704.
  7. MORROW AG, BROCKENBROUGH EC (1961). "Surgical treatment of idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis: technic and hemodynamic results of subaortic ventriculomyotomy". Ann Surg. 154: 181–9. doi:10.1097/00000658-196108000-00003. PMC 1465878. PMID 13772904.
  8. BRAUNWALD E, EBERT PA (1962). "Hemogynamic alterations in idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis induced by sympathomimetic drugs". Am J Cardiol. 10: 489–95. doi:10.1016/0002-9149(62)90373-9. PMID 14015086.
  9. HARRISON DC, BRAUNWALD E, GLICK G, MASON DT, CHIDSEY CA, ROSS J (1964). "EFFECTS OF BETA ADRENERGIC BLOCKADE ON THE CIRCULATION WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO OBSERVATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTROPHIC SUBAORTIC STENOSIS". Circulation. 29: 84–98. doi:10.1161/01.cir.29.1.84. PMID 14105035.
  10. Cohen LS, Braunwald E (1967). "Amelioration of angina pectoris in idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis with beta-adrenergic blockade". Circulation. 35 (5): 847–51. doi:10.1161/01.cir.35.5.847. PMID 6067064.
  11. Braunwald E (2009). "Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the early years". J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2 (4): 341–8. doi:10.1007/s12265-009-9128-3. PMID 20559993.
  12. Maron BJ (2003). "Sudden death in young athletes". N Engl J Med. 349 (11): 1064–75. doi:10.1056/NEJMra022783. PMID 12968091.



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