Hyperplasia

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Maria Fernanda Villarreal, M.D. [2]

Synonyms and Keywords: Physiologic hyperplasia; Pathologic hyperplasia; Hypergenesis

Overview

Hyperplasia (or "hypergenesis") is a general term referring to the proliferation of cells within an organ or tissue. Hyperplasia may result in the gross enlargement of an organ, the formation of a benign tumor. Hyperplasia is considered to be a physiological response to a specific stimulus, and the cells of a hyperplastic growth remain subject to normal regulatory control mechanisms. This stands in contrast to neoplasia (the process underlying cancer and some benign tumors), in which genetically abnormal cells proliferate in a non-physiological manner which is unresponsive to normal stimuli.[1]

Classification

  • Hyperplasia may be classified into 2 groups:[2]

Physiologic hyperplasia

Pathologic hyperplasia

Pathophysiology

  • The pathogenesis of hyperplasia is characterized by an increase in the number of cells.[2]
  • Hyperplasia is the result of growth factor driven proliferation of mature cells.[1]
  • The pathogenesis of hyperplasia is limited to cells that have the capability of reproduction, excluding primarily myocytes and neurons.
  • On gross pathology, findings of hyperplasia will depend on the anatomical site.

Causes

Differentiating Hyperplasia from other Diseases

  • Hyperplasia must be differentiated from other diseases that cause abnormal tissue growth such as:[2]
  • Some examples of hyperplasia, include:

Risk Factors

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ramzi Cotran, Vinay Kumar, Tucker Collins (1999). Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease, Sixth Edition. W.B. Saunders. ISBN 072167335X. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Hyperplasia. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperplasia Accessed on April 7, 2016

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