Lipoprotein disorders causes

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Lipoprotein Disorders Microchapters

Patient Information

Overview

Causes

Classification

Hyperlipoproteinemia
Hypolipoproteinemia

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Hardik Patel, M.D.; Hilda Mahmoudi M.D., M.P.H.[2]

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Overview

Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities are common in the general population and are regarded as a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases due to their contribution to atherosclerosis. The causes of hyperlipidemia can be primary or secondary. Primary hyperlipidemia is usually due to genetic etiologies, such as mutations in receptor proteins, which include chylomicronemia, hypercholesterolemia, dysbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, mixed hyperlipoproteinemia and combined hyperlipoproteinemia. Secondary hyperlipidemia results from other underlying conditions such as diabetes.

Causes

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Alagille syndrome
Chemical / poisoning No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Amprenavir, atazanavir sulfate, atypical antipsychotics, bendrofluazide, beta blockers, bexarotene, chenodeoxycholic acid, chlorthalidone, clofibrate, clozapine, colesevelam hydrochloride, colestyramine, combined oral contraceptive pill, cyclopenthiazide, danazol, desvenlafaxine, doxazosin, etretinate, everolimus, febuxostat, fosamprenavir, gestrinone, hydrochlorothiazide, Iloperidone, interferon alpha, isotretinoin, linagliptin, lopinavir, mitotane, nelfinavir, olanzapine, Pegaspargase, pramipexole, prazosin, progestagens, propofol, protease inhibitors, ritonavir, rosiglitazone, saquinavir, sirolimus, temsirolimus, testosterone, thiazide diuretics, tipranavir, tocilizumab, tofacitinib, torcetrapib
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Cushing syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypothyroidism, metabolic syndrome, hypopituitarism
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Cholestatic jaundice, intrahepatic cholestasis, pancreatitis, Alagille syndrome
Genetic Alagille syndrome, Alstrom syndrome, analbuminaemia, apolipoprotein C-II deficiency, apoliprotein E deficiency, Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 deficiency, chromosome 15q deletion, chylomicronemia, familial alphalipoprotein deficiency, familial defective apolipoprotein B-100, familial hypertriglyceridaemia, familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, familial mixed hyperlipidemia, fructose-1, 6-diphosphatase deficiency, glycogen storage diseases, lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency, lipoprotein lipase deficiency, Niemann-Pick disease, primary hyperlipoproteinemia, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Werner syndrome
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic Parenteral nutrition
Infectious Disease Sepsis
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome
Neurologic Growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma
Nutritional / Metabolic Dysglobulinemia, LDL receptor deficiency, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium deficiency, vitamin E deficiency, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, apolipoprotein C-II deficiency, apoprotein E deficiency, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 deficiency, familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, fructose-1, 6-diphosphatase deficiency, glycogen storage diseases, lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency, lipoprotein lipase deficiency, Niemann-Pick disease, primary hyperlipoproteinemia
Obstetric/Gynecologic Pregnancy
Oncologic Growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity Amprenavir, atazanavir sulfate, atypical antipsychotics, bendrofluazide, beta blockers, bexarotene, chenodeoxycholic acid, chlorthalidone, clofibrate, clozapine, colesevelam hydrochloride, colestyramine, combined oral contraceptive pill, cyclopenthiazide, danazol, desvenlafaxine, doxazosin, etretinate, fosamprenavir, gestrinone, hydrochlorothiazide, interferon alpha, isotretinoin, linagliptin, lopinavir, mitotane, nelfinavir, olanzapine prazosin, progestagens, propofol, protease inhibitors, ritonavir, rosiglitazone, saquinavir, sirolimus, temsirolimus, testosterone, thiazide diuretics, tipranavir, tocilizumab, tofacitinib, torcetrapib
Psychiatric Anorexia nervosa
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal / Electrolyte Chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, Alagille syndrome
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Macrophage activation syndrome
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Alcohol abuse, benign symmetrical lipomatosis, exercise, high fat diet, obesity, positive family history, sedentary lifestyle, stress, tobacco smoking

Causes in Alphabetical Order

References

  1. OMIM entry 207750 last updated 02/10/2009
  2. PMID 227429 (PubMed)
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  3. James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Henderson DC (2001). "Clozapine: diabetes mellitus, weight gain, and lipid abnormalities.". J Clin Psychiatry. 62 Suppl 23: 39–44. PMID 11603884. 
  5. Rosenson RS, Baker AL, Chow MJ, Hay RV (1990). "Hyperviscosity syndrome in a hypercholesterolemic patient with primary biliary cirrhosis.". Gastroenterology. 98 (5 Pt 1): 1351–7. PMID 2323525. 
  6. OMIM entry 118830 updated 03/18/2004
  7. Zavaroni I, Dall'Aglio E, Alpi O, Bruschi F, Bonora E, Pezzarossa A; et al. (1985). "Evidence for an independent relationship between plasma insulin and concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride.". Atherosclerosis. 55 (3): 259–66. PMID 3893447. 
  8. O'Brien T, Dinneen SF, O'Brien PC, Palumbo PJ (1993). "Hyperlipidemia in patients with primary and secondary hypothyroidism.". Mayo Clin Proc. 68 (9): 860–6. PMID 8371604. 
  9. McIntyre N (1988). "Familial LCAT deficiency and fish-eye disease.". J Inherit Metab Dis. 11 Suppl 1: 45–56. PMID 3141686. 
  10. Hubert HB, Feinleib M, McNamara PM, Castelli WP (1983). "Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study.". Circulation. 67 (5): 968–77. PMID 6219830. 
  11. Osser DN, Najarian DM, Dufresne RL (1999). "Olanzapine increases weight and serum triglyceride levels.". J Clin Psychiatry. 60 (11): 767–70. PMID 10584766. 
  12. Facchini FS, Hollenbeck CB, Jeppesen J, Chen YD, Reaven GM (1992). "Insulin resistance and cigarette smoking.". Lancet. 339 (8802): 1128–30. PMID 1349365. 



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