Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups

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In human genetics, Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups are haplogroups defined by differences in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y chromosome (called Y-DNA).

The Y Chromosome Consortium has established a system of defining Y-DNA haplogroups by letters A through R, with further subdivisions using numbers and lower case letters.[1]

Y-chromosomal Adam is the name given by researchers to a theoretical male who is the most recent common patrilineal (male-lineage) ancestor of all living humans. Estimations of the date of this common ancestor have varied significantly in different studies.

Major haplogroups

Major Y-chromosome haplogroups include:

Table view

Template:Y-DNA

Groups A and B

Haplogroups A and B are only found in sub-Saharan Africa (and in populations extracted from there in modern times, primarily via Atlantic slave trade). The first to branch off was A, with defining mutation M91. All other haplogroups are summarized as BR (also referred to as YxA).

Groups with mutation M168 (CR)

The defining mutations separating CR (all haplogroups excepting A and B) are M168 and M294. These mutations predate the "Out of Africa" migration. The defining mutations of DE probably occurred in Northeastern Africa some 50,000 years ago. The M130 and M216 mutations that distinguish Haplogroup C from all other descendants of CR may have occurred somewhat earlier, perhaps even as early as 60,000 years ago, after the first Out of Africa migration brought Homo sapiens to the southern coast of Southwest Asia.

Groups descended from Haplogroup F (GR)

The groups descending from haplogroup F are found in some 90% of the world's population, but almost exclusively outside of sub-Saharan Africa. The mutation of IJ corresponds to a wave of migration out of the Middle East or Western Asia some 45 ka that subsequently spread into Europe (Cro-Magnon). Haplogroup G originated in the Middle East or Caucasus, or perhaps further east as far as Pakistan some 30 ka, and spread to Europe with the Neolithic Revolution. Haplogroup H probably occurred in India some 30-40 ka, and remains prevalent there, spreading westwards in historical times with the Roma migration. Haplogroup K probably originated in southwestern Asia and spread widely to Africa, Eurasia, Australia and the South Pacific.

Groups descended from Haplogroup K (LR)

Haplogroup L is mainly found in South Asia. Haplogroup M is most prevalent in Papua New Guinea. The NO haplogroup appeared ca. 35-40 ka in Central Asia. Haplogroup N probably originated in Mongolia and spread both east into Siberia and west, being the most common group found in Uralic peoples. Haplogroup O is found at its highest frequency in East Asia and Southeast Asia, with lower frequencies in the South Pacific, Central Asia, and South Asia. Haplogroup P gave rise to groups Q and R, and is rarely found in its undifferentiated stage. It probably originated in Central Asia or the Altai region. Haplogroup Q also originated in Central Asia, migrating east to North America.

Groups descended from Haplogroup NO (M214)

The NO haplogroup appeared ca. 35-40 ka in Central Asia. Haplogroup N probably originated in Mongolia and spread both east into Siberia and west, being the most common group found in Uralic peoples. Haplogroup O is found at its highest frequency in East Asia and Southeast Asia, with lower frequencies in the South Pacific, Central Asia, and South Asia.

Groups descended from Haplogroup P (M45)

Haplogroup Q is a branch of haplogroup P (M45). It is believed to have arisen in Siberia approximately 15,000 to 20,000 years ago. Haplogroup Q is closely related to haplogroup R (M207), as both Groups Q and R share a common marker (M45).

The bulk of Haplogroup R is represented in lineages R1a and R1b. R1a likely originated in the Eurasian Steppes, and is associated with the Kurgan culture and Proto-Indo-European expansion. It is primarily found in Central Asia, South Asia, and the Slavic peoples of Eastern Europe. R1b originated prior to or during the last glaciation, when it was concentrated in refugia in southern Europe; it is also found sparsely distributed among various peoples of Asia and Africa. Some form of R1b, perhaps R1b1* (P25), probably migrated westward to populate Western Europe around 35,000 ybp.[citation needed] Its subclade R1b1c (M269) is the haplogroup that is most commonly found among modern European populations, especially those of Western Europe.

See also

References

External links

ca:Haplogrups del cromosoma Y humà cs:Haploskupiny chromozómu Y lidské DNA it:Aplogruppi del cromosoma Y sr:Људске Y-хромозом ДНК халпогрупе


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