Hepatorenal syndrome epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sunny Kumar MD [2]

Overview

Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is common in cirrhotic patients.

Epidemiology and Demographics

Incidence:

  • In 1993, incidance of HRS had an incidence of 180 in 100000 at one year and 390 in 100000 at five years in patients with cirrhosis and ascites.[1]
  • In 2010, The annual incidence of HRS was 760 in 100000.[2]

Approximately 50% of the cirrhotic patients with ascites developed some type of functional renal failure during the follow-up period.

Prevalence:

  • The prevalence of HRS was from 13000 to 45800 in 100000 n patients with cirrhosis and ascites.[3]

Age:

  • Most patients with HRS are in their sixth or seventh decade.[4]

Gender:

  • Male are more affected population.[5]

Etiology of Cirrhosis:

  •  Alcohol (type 1 HRS 46.1%; type 2 HRS 55%).[6][7]
  • Viral (type 1 HRS 31.6%; type 2 HRS 40%).
  • Alcohol and viral causes (type 1 HRS 10.5%; type 2 HRS 2.5%).

References

  1. Ginès A, Escorsell A, Ginès P, Saló J, Jiménez W, Inglada L; et al. (1993). "Incidence, predictive factors, and prognosis of the hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis with ascites". Gastroenterology. 105 (1): 229–36. PMID 8514039.
  2. Montoliu S, Ballesté B, Planas R, Alvarez MA, Rivera M, Miquel M; et al. (2010). "Incidence and prognosis of different types of functional renal failure in cirrhotic patients with ascites". Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 8 (7): 616–22, quiz e80. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2010.03.029. PMID 20399905.
  3. Salerno F, Cazzaniga M, Merli M, Spinzi G, Saibeni S, Salmi A; et al. (2011). "Diagnosis, treatment and survival of patients with hepatorenal syndrome: a survey on daily medical practice". J Hepatol. 55 (6): 1241–8. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2011.03.012. PMID 21703199.
  4. Salerno F, Cazzaniga M, Merli M, Spinzi G, Saibeni S, Salmi A; et al. (2011). "Diagnosis, treatment and survival of patients with hepatorenal syndrome: a survey on daily medical practice". J Hepatol. 55 (6): 1241–8. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2011.03.012. PMID 21703199.
  5. Martín-Llahí M, Guevara M, Torre A, Fagundes C, Restuccia T, Gilabert R; et al. (2011). "Prognostic importance of the cause of renal failure in patients with cirrhosis". Gastroenterology. 140 (2): 488–496.e4. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2010.07.043. PMID 20682324.
  6. Martín-Llahí M, Guevara M, Torre A, Fagundes C, Restuccia T, Gilabert R; et al. (2011). "Prognostic importance of the cause of renal failure in patients with cirrhosis". Gastroenterology. 140 (2): 488–496.e4. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2010.07.043. PMID 20682324.
  7. Garcia-Tsao G, Parikh CR, Viola A (2008). "Acute kidney injury in cirrhosis". Hepatology. 48 (6): 2064–77. doi:10.1002/hep.22605. PMID 19003880.



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