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Hepatitis Main Page
Hepatitis refers to the inflammation of the liver. The etiologic agent could be infectious (almost always viral) or non-infectious. Depending on the disease course various kinds of hepatitis may be classified as acute or chronic. Acute viral hepatitis is a spectrum of systemic inflammatory conditions that predominantly involves the liver. Hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), the HBV-associated delta agent or hepatitis D virus (HDV), and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are the most common viruses that may cause acute viral hepatitis. Alcoholic hepatitis and and non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are the most common non-infectious types of hepatitis. Many drugs and toxins may also result in hepatic injury. The common manifestation among the patients of hepatitis are fever, jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, and hepatomegaly. Diagnosis of hepatitis is based on the clinical manifestations and laboratory findings. In rare conditions liver biopsy is required for either the diagnosis or formulating a treatment plan. In some cases disease may become chronic and result in multiple complications such as, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cirrhosis, or hepatorenal syndrome. In such conditions liver transplantation is the definitive treatment option.
Hepatitis may be classified depending on the duration of the disease into the following types:
- Acute hepatitis
- Chronic hepatitis
Hepatitis may also be classified on the basis of various causes into the following types:
- Infectious hepatitis
- Non-infectious hepatitis
Infectious hepatitis can be classified according to the causative viral agent in to 7 major categories.
|Alcoholic hepatitis||Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)||Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency||Autoimmune hepatitis||Obstructive hepatitis||Drug related hepatitis||Toxin related hepatitis||Ischemic hepatitis|
|Disease||Clinical manifestations||Laboratory findings||Additional findings|
|Symptoms||Signs||Transaminitis (elevated AST and ALT)||Viral markers||Autoimmune markers|
|Nausea & vomiting||Abdominal pain||Arthralgia||Jaundice||Hepatomegaly|
|Acute viral hepatitis||Hepatitis A||+++||++||+||+++||+||+++||HAV Ab||---||
|Hepatitis B||+++||++||++||+++||+||+++||HBs Ag, HBc Ab, HBe Ag||---||
|Hepatitis C||+++||++||++||+++||+||+++||HCV Ab||---|
|Hepatitis E||++||++||+/-||++||+||+++||HEV Ab||---||
|CMV hepatitis||+/-||++||-||+||+||++||CMV-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibody||--||
|EBV hepatitis||+/-||++||-||+/-||+||++||Heterophile antibody test, monospot test||--||
|Autoimmune hepatitis||-||+||+/-||++||+||+++||---||ANA, ASMA, anti SLA/LP, ANCA, ALKM-1 antibodies||
|Drug induced hepatitis||+/-||+||-||+||+||++||---||---||