Hemoptysis causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Teresa Stahl, M.D. [2]; Sadaf Sharfaei M.D.[3]

Overview

Causes

Life Threatening Causes

  • Hemoptysis may be a life-threatening condition depending on the severity of bleeding and must be treated appropriately.
  • life-threatening causes of hemoptysis include:

Common Causes

Less Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Absence of pulmonary artery, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), aortic aneurysm, arterial bronchial fistula, arteritis, arteriovenous malformation, bronchial artery aneurysm, Bronchial varices, cardiac failure, common ventricle, congenital heart disease, congenital mitral malformation, congenital mitral stenosis, congestive heart failure, Ehler-danlos syndrome (vascular type), Eisenmenger syndrome, fat embolism, heart failure, heart valve damage, hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, isolated unilateral absence of pulmonary artery, left atrial hypertension, left atrial myxoma, leukocytoclastic angiitis, Meadows syndrome, microscopic polyangiitis, mitral stenosis, polyarteritis nodosa, portal vein obstruction, pulmonary arteriovenous fistula, pulmonary arteriovenous malformation, pulmonary artery agenesis, pulmonary artery rupture, pulmonary artery stenosis, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hemangioma, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary infarction, pulmonary thrombosis, pulmonary vein stenosis, Rasmussen's aneurysm, ruptured aortic aneurysm, ruptured arteriovenous fistula, septic pulmonary emboli, tetralogy of Fallot, tracheal-innominate artery fistula, tricuspid endocarditis, vasculitis, Wegener granulomatosis
Chemical / poisoning Asbestosis, chronic berylliosis, cocaine, crack cocaine, cytotoxic drug use, inhalation of nitrogen dioxide, inhalation of pesticides, naphtha poisoning, sulfuric acid poisoning, toluene diisocyanate poisoning, vanadium poisoning
Dermatologic Follicular hamartoma-alopecia-cystic fibrosis
Drug Side Effect Amiodarone, anticoagulants, aspirin, bedaquiline fumarate, bevacizumab, Cidofovir, cocaine, crack cocaine, cytotoxic drug use, dicoumarol, herbal agent adverse reaction, penicillamine, Pentamidine Isethionate, phenprocoumon, pramipexole, propylthiouracil, rifapentin,sertraline, Tiagabine, warfarin, zonisamide,
Ear Nose Throat Carcinoma of the vocal tract, laceration vocal cords, laryngeal carcinoma, laryngitis, oropharyngeal cancer, pharyngeal cancer, pharyngeal polyps, pharyngeal tumor, pharyngeal ulceration, severe nosebleed, stomatitis, tonsillectomy, tonsillitis
Endocrine No underlying causes
Environmental Asbestosis, chronic berylliosis
Gastroenterologic Cirrhosis of liver, Dieulafoy's disease, esophageal carcinoma, esophageal tumors, oropharingeal cancer, portal vein obstruction, severe vomiting, tracheo-esophageal fistula and esophageal varices
Genetic Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, carbamoylphosphate synthetase deficiency, cystic fibrosis, Ehler-danlos syndrome (vascular type), follicular hamartoma-alopecia-cystic fibrosis , hemophilia, hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia
Hematologic Blood dyscrasias, coagulopathy, disseminated intravascular coagulation, essential thrombocytosis, fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, hemangioma, hemophilia, hemorrhagic diathesis, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, leukemia, malignant lymphoma, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, Von Willebrand disease
Iatrogenic Bronchoscopy, endotracheal tube, laryngoscopy, lung biopsy, lymphangiography, mediastinoscopy, post fontan procedure, pulmonary artery catheter, spirometry, suctioning of airways, Swan Ganz catheter-induced infarction, tonsillectomy, tracheotomy, transbronchial biopsy, transtracheal aspiration
Infectious Disease Actinomycosis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, alveolar hydatid disease, anerobic pneumonia, ascariasis, aspergilloma, coccidioidomycosis, dengue, dirofilaria immitis, echinococcal cyst, echinococcus granulosus, francisella tularensis, histoplasmosis, HIV, hookworm, influenza, klebsiella, Lemierre's syndrome, linguatula serrata, lung abscess, lupus pneumonitis, melioidosis, mucormycosis, mycetoma, mycobacterium tuberculosis, mycobacterium xenopi, necrotic pneumonia, nocardiosis, nosocomial pneumonia, paracoccidioidomycosis, paragonimiasis, pneumonia, pneumonic plague, pulmonary helminth infection, rhodococcus equi, serratia marcescens, stachybotrys atra, stachybotrys chartarum, staphylococcal respiratory infection, stomatitis, torulopsis, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, tuberculosis, yersinia pestis, zygomycosis
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Ehler-danlos syndrome (vascular type)
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional / Metabolic Carbamoylphosphate synthetase deficiency
Obstetric/Gynecologic Catamenial hemoptysis, endometriosis, intrathoracic endometriosis, meadows syndrome
Oncologic Adenocarcinoma of lung, adenoid cystic carcinoma, adenoma, adult small cell lung cancer, benign lung tumor, bronchial adenoma, bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinoma, bronchogenic carcinoma, carcinoma of the vocal tract, esophageal carcinoma, esophageal tumors, large cell carcinoma, laryngeal carcinoma, leukemia, lung metastases, lung neoplasm, malignant lymphoma, mediastinal tumors, mesothelioma, mixed type non small cell carcinoma, oropharyngeal cancer, papillomatosis carcinoid, pharyngeal cancer, pharyngeal tumor, pleuropulmonary blastoma, pulmonary hemangioma, rib tumor, tracheal cancer
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity Inhalation of pesticides
Psychiatric Münchausen syndrome
Pulmonary Acute or chronic bronchitis, adenocarcinoma of lung, adenoid cystic carcinoma, adenoma, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), adult small cell lung cancer, alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, alveolar hydatid disease, alveolitis, anerobic pneumonia, anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody-mediated disease, arterial bronchial fistula, asbestosis, benign lung tumor, bronchial adenoma, bronchial artery aneurysm, bronchial varices, bronchiectasis, bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinoma, bronchitis, bronchogenic carcinoma, bronchogenic cyst, bullous emphysema, catamenial hemoptysis, chronic berylliosis, chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, esophageal carcinoma, esophageal tumors, fat embolism, foreign body in respiratory tract, Goodpasture syndrome, hemangioma, hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, histiocytosis x, histoplasmosis, Hughes-Stovin syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis, inflammatory pseudotumor of the lung, intrathoracic endometriosis, isolated unilateral absence of pulmonary artery, Kartagener syndrome, large cell carcinoma, lung abscess, lung fibrosis, lung metastases, lung neoplasm, lung polyps, lung trauma, lung ulceration, lung vasculitis, lupus pneumonitis, lymphangiomyomatosis, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, malignant lymphoma, mesothelioma, mixed type non small cell carcinoma, papillomatosis carcinoid, penetrating chest wound, pleuropulmonary blastoma, pulmonary arteriovenous fistula, pulmonary arteriovenous malformation, pulmonary artery agenesis, pulmonary artery rupture, pulmonary artery stenosis, pulmonary congestion, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary infarction, pulmonary sequestration, pulmonary thrombosis, pulmonary vein stenosis, Rasmussen's aneurysm, ruptured bronchi, septic pulmonary emboli, Swan Ganz catheter-induced infarction, tracheal cancer, tracheal trauma, tracheal ulceration, tracheal-innominate artery fistula, tracheitis, tracheo-esophageal fistula and esophageal varices, tracheobronchitis, tracheobronchopathia osteoplastica , tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, uremic lung
Renal / Electrolyte Goodpasture syndrome , uremic lung
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Amyloidosis, anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody-mediated disease, Behcet's syndrome, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, Goodpasture syndrome, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, histiocytosis x, HIV, Hughes-Stovin syndrome, immunodeficiency, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, microscopic polyangiitis, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Chest injury, laceration vocal cords, lung contusion, lung trauma, penetrating chest wound, tracheal trauma
Urologic No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Bronchogenic cyst, clove cigarettes, cocaine, crack cocaine, idiopathic, Kartagener syndrome, shrapnel, violent coughing

Causes in Alphabetical order


References

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