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WikiDoc Resources for Hemoperitoneum


Most recent articles on Hemoperitoneum

Most cited articles on Hemoperitoneum

Review articles on Hemoperitoneum

Articles on Hemoperitoneum in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ


Powerpoint slides on Hemoperitoneum

Images of Hemoperitoneum

Photos of Hemoperitoneum

Podcasts & MP3s on Hemoperitoneum

Videos on Hemoperitoneum

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Hemoperitoneum

Bandolier on Hemoperitoneum

TRIP on Hemoperitoneum

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Hemoperitoneum at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Hemoperitoneum

Clinical Trials on Hemoperitoneum at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Hemoperitoneum

NICE Guidance on Hemoperitoneum


FDA on Hemoperitoneum

CDC on Hemoperitoneum


Books on Hemoperitoneum


Hemoperitoneum in the news

Be alerted to news on Hemoperitoneum

News trends on Hemoperitoneum


Blogs on Hemoperitoneum


Definitions of Hemoperitoneum

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Hemoperitoneum

Discussion groups on Hemoperitoneum

Patient Handouts on Hemoperitoneum

Directions to Hospitals Treating Hemoperitoneum

Risk calculators and risk factors for Hemoperitoneum

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Hemoperitoneum

Causes & Risk Factors for Hemoperitoneum

Diagnostic studies for Hemoperitoneum

Treatment of Hemoperitoneum

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Hemoperitoneum


Hemoperitoneum en Espanol

Hemoperitoneum en Francais


Hemoperitoneum in the Marketplace

Patents on Hemoperitoneum

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Hemoperitoneum

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

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Hemoperitoneum is the presence of blood in the peritoneal cavity. The blood accumulates in the space between the inner lining of the abdominal wall and the internal abdominal organs. Hemoperitoneum is generally classified as a surgical emergency; in most cases, urgent laparotomy is needed to identify and control the source of the bleeding. In selected cases, careful observation may be permissible. The abdominal cavity is highly distensible and may easily hold greater than five liters of blood, or more than the entire circulating blood volume for an average-sized individual. Therefore, large-scale or rapid blood loss into the abdomen will reliably induce hemorrhagic shock and may, untreated, rapidly lead to death.

Historical Perspective




Common causes of hemoperitoneum include:

Differentiating Hemoperitoneum from Other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis

Natural History




Diagnostic Criteria

Hemoperitoneum can be reliably diagnosed with the following examinations:

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy

Classically, hemoperitoneum was an indication for emergency surgery to locate the source of bleeding. The method of control depends on the source of blood loss. Vascular bleeding, i.e. from a blood vessel, would be treated by clamping and ligation of the offending vessel, or repair of the vessel in the case of major arteries such as the aorta or mesenteric arteries. Bleeding from the spleen most often requires splenectomy, or removal of the spleen. Bleeding from the liver might be controlled by application of hemostatic sponges, thrombin, or more recently, argon beam cauterization.

With modern diagnostic aids such as Computed Tomography (CT) scans, certain injuries such as low-grade lacerations of the spleen may be diagnosed early and observed, with surgical options deferred unless clinical deterioration obligates them. In rare occasions, rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm may be repaired via an endovascular technique, though this is generally not performed in the setting of acute rupture.