Hemochromatosis classification On the Web
American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Hemochromatosis classification
Hemochromatosis is divided on basis of it's etiology. Hereditary hemochromatosis is caused by defect in gene and secondary hemochromatosis is caused by excess absorption of iron, repeated blood transfusions, or excess oral intake, typically in patients with disorders of erythropoiesis.
Hemochromatosis can be classified on basis of mode of entry of iron source:
- Hereditary hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disorder having genetic mutation that affect HFE proteins that limit the entry of iron into the blood by regulating hepcidin, the primary iron regulatory hormone.
- Following are classes in which hereditary hemochromatosis can be divided:
|Hemochromatosis type 1: "classical"-hemochromatosis||235200||HFE||6p21.3|
|Hemochromatosis type 2A: juvenile hemochromatosis||602390||hemojuvelin ("HJV", also known as HFE2)||1q21|
|Hemochromatosis type 2B: juvenile hemochromatosis||606464||Hepcidin antimicrobial peptide (HAMP) or HFE2B||19q13|
|Hemochromatosis type 3||604720||transferrin receptor-2 (TFR2 or HFE3)||7q22|
|Hemochromatosis type 4 autosomal dominant hemochromatosis (all others are recessive), gene mutation||604653||ferroportin (SLC11A3)||2q32|
Paraentral hemochromatosis refers to patients who get multiple blood transfusions.
- It is commonly found in patients with hemoglobinopathies such as thalasmia major.
- Gestational allo-immune liver disease is cause of fetal liver injury that occurs in all cases of neonatal hemochromatosis.
- In fetus the level of TFR1, transferrin, and ferritin is found high.
- It is unclear what is the cause but it is believed that fetal blood extracts more iron from maternal blood.
- As the fetal liver is damaged, it causes decreased levels of hepcidin.
- Liu J, Sun B, Yin H, Liu S (2016). "Hepcidin: A Promising Therapeutic Target for Iron Disorders: A Systematic Review.". Medicine (Baltimore). 95 (14): e3150. PMC . PMID 27057839. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000003150.
- Crownover BK, Covey CJ (2013). "Hereditary hemochromatosis.". Am Fam Physician. 87 (3): 183–90. PMID 23418762.
- Feldman AG, Whitington PF (2013). "Neonatal hemochromatosis.". J Clin Exp Hepatol. 3 (4): 313–20. PMC . PMID 25755519. doi:10.1016/j.jceh.2013.10.004.
- Parkkila S, Waheed A, Britton RS, Bacon BR, Zhou XY, Tomatsu S; et al. (1997). "Association of the transferrin receptor in human placenta with HFE, the protein defective in hereditary hemochromatosis.". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 94 (24): 13198–202. PMC . PMID 9371823.
- Shimono A, Imoto Y, Sakamoto H, Chiba Y, Matsumoto K, Kawauchi M; et al. (2016). "An immunohistochemical study of placental syncytiotrophoblasts in neonatal hemochromatosis.". Placenta. 48: 49–55. PMID 27871472. doi:10.1016/j.placenta.2016.10.005.