Hemangioma differential diagnosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1];Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Nawal Muazam M.D.[2]

Overview

Hemangioma must be differentiated from other diseases such as: congenital hemangioma, kaposiform hemangioendothelioma, tufted angioma, nevus flammeus, and pyogenic granuloma.[1]

Hemangioma differential diagnosis

Hemangioma must be differentiated from other diseases such as:[1]

Differential Diagnosis of Cardiac Hemangioma

Cardiac hemangioma should be differentiated from other cardiac tumors that present as a cardiac mass. The following are the differentials:[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48]

Site of Tumor Malignant Potential Type of Tumor Tissue of Origin Age of Presentation Location Morphology Signs and Symptoms MRI Findings
Systemic Manifestations Cardiac Manifestations Embolic Manifestations
Primary Cardiac Tumor Primary Benign Myxoma
  • Between third to sixth decade of life
  • 1-15 cm in diameter
  • Pedunculated
  • Polypoid
  • Smooth and lobulated
  • Villous and pappillary appearance associated with embolization
Rhabdomyoma
  • Striated Muscle
  • 1-3 cm in size
  • Yellow-gray color
  • Firm
  • Circumscribed lobulated
  • Majority multiple if associated with tuberous sclerosis (of those with no association, 50% are single)
  • Multiple masses isointense to muscle tissue on T1 images
  • Hyperintense on T2 images
Cardiac Fibroma
  • Children (1/3rd in infants)
  • Solitary
  • Solitary mass
  • Low intensity on T2 weighted image
Fibroelastoma
  • < 1 cm in diameter
  • Solitary
  • Papillary
  • Flower-like appearance with multiple attachments to valve
  • Short pedicle
  • T1 and T2 weighted images show uniform intermediate signal intensity similar to myocardium
  • Homogeneous late gadolinium contrast enhancement
Hemangioma
  • < 1 year to 70 years
  • < 2 % of primary cardiac tumors
  • Polypoid
  • Encapsulated
  • Intermediate density on T1 images
  • Hypointense on T2 images
  • Multicystic enhancing lesion
  • Involvement of epicardium or pericardium
Lipoma
  • Between fourth to sixth decade of life
  • Epicardial or intramural lesion
  • High intensity on T1 weighted image
  • Drop out on fat saturation images
Paraganglioma
  • Average age of presentation is 11-13 years
  • 3-8 cm
  • Well-defined
  • Broad base
  • Encapsulated
  • Heterogeneous
  • Hypervascular
Atrioventricular Node Tumor
  • Average age of diagnosis is 38 years
  • Female to male ratio 3:1
  • Hypointense cardiac mass on standard imaging
  • Hyperintensity on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images with heterogeneous contrast enhancement
Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum
  • > 60 years
-
Primary Malignant Fibrosarcoma
  • 20 to 80 years
  • Sessile or pedunculated protruding masses in ventricular cavities
  • Soft
  • Lobulated
  • Gelatinous
  • Heterogenous or isointense to myocardium on T1 weighted images
Angiosarcoma
  • 30 to 50 years
  • Arterial phase enhancement
Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Most common primary sarcoma of children
  • Average age of presentation is 20 years
  • Multiple
  • Three types:
    • Embryonic
    • Pleomorphic
    • Alveolar
  • Intermediate-to-hypointensity compared with muscle on T1 images
  • Hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging with heterogeneous contrast enhancement
Lymphoma
  • 10 to 90 years
  • Males > females
  • Right sided mostly
  • Majority solitary (1/3rd multiple)
  • Hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images
Secondary Cardiac Tumor Metastastatic Malignant Metastasis
  • Any age
  • Multiple

References

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