Helicobacter pylori infection epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Yamuna Kondapally, M.B.B.S[2]

Overview

H. pylori inhabits more than 50% of world's population, especially in developing countries. The prevalence of infection increases with age. The prevalence of H. pylori is higher in developing countries than that in developed countries. In the United States, H. pylori infection is a common disease that tends to affect African Americans, Hispanics, and the elderly compared to whites.

Epidemiology and Demographics

Prevalence

  • H. pylori inhabits more than 50% of world's population especially in developing countries.[1]

Age

  • All age groups may develop H. pylori infection
  • The prevalence of infection increases with age.[2]
  • About 30%-50% of H.pylori infections are acquired during childhood which increases to 90% during adulthood in developing countries.[3]
  • H. pylori infection in developed countries is less common in children and reaches up to 60% with increasing age.[4]
  • In united states, 20% of adolescents are infected with H. pylori when compared to 90% in by 5 years of age in developing countries.[5]
  • Children differ from adults with respect to H. pylori infection in following terms of:[6][7]

Gender

  • Males are more commonly affected with H. pylori infection than females.[8]

Race

  • In United States, H. pylori infection is a common disease that tends to affect African Americans, Hispanics, and the elderly compared to Whites.[9]

Developing countries

  • The prevalence of H. pylori is higher in developing countries than that in developed countries.[10]
  • H.pylori infection is common in southern and eastern Europe, Mexico, South America, Africa, most Asian countries, and aboriginal people in North America.[11][12]

Developed countries

  • The prevalence of H. pylori is declining in the United States.
  • It is estimated that 30%-40% of the US population is infected with H. pylori.[13][14]
  • In United states, approximately 25% of children between 6-19 years old are infected.[15]
  • The incidence rates are high in Japan, Columbia, Costa Rica and China, and comparatively low in the United States.

Helicobacter pylori Infection Globally

Prevalence of H. pylori infection globally[16]

Country Prevalence per 100,000
Children Adult
Africa Ethiopia 48,000 >95,000
Nigeria 82,000 91,000
Central America Gautemala 51,000 65,000
Mexico 43,000 90,000
North America Canada 7100 23,000
USA and Canada 30,000
South America Bolivia 54,000
Brazil 30,000 82,000
Chile 36,000 >70,000
Asia Bangladesh 60,000 >90,000
Hong Kong 13,000
India 22,000 >80,000
Japan >70,000
Siberia 30,000 85,000
South Korea 56,000 40,600
Sri Lanka 67,000 72,000
Taiwan 11,000 >50,000
Australia Australia 20,000
Europe Eastern 70,000
Albania 70700
Bulgaria 61,700
Czech Republic 42,000
Estonia 60,000
Germany 48,800
Iceland 36,000
Netherlands 12000
Serbia 36,400
Sweden 11,000
Switzerland 11,900
Middle East Egypt 50,000 90,000
Libya 50,000 94,000
Saudi Arabia 40,000 80,000
Turkey 64,000 80,000

References

  1. "Epidemiology of, and risk factors for, Helicobacter pylori infection among 3194 asymptomatic subjects in 17 populations. The EUROGAST Study Group". Gut. 34 (12): 1672–6. 1993. PMC 1374460. PMID 8282253.
  2. Mégraud F, Brassens-Rabbé MP, Denis F, Belbouri A, Hoa DQ (1989). "Seroepidemiology of Campylobacter pylori infection in various populations". J Clin Microbiol. 27 (8): 1870–3. PMC 267687. PMID 2549098.
  3. Cheng H, Hu F, Zhang L, Yang G, Ma J, Hu J; et al. (2009). "Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and identification of risk factors in rural and urban Beijing, China". Helicobacter. 14 (2): 128–33. doi:10.1111/j.1523-5378.2009.00668.x. PMID 19298340.
  4. Go MF (2002). "Review article: natural history and epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection". Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 16 Suppl 1: 3–15. PMID 11849122.
  5. Frenck RW, Clemens J (2003). "Helicobacter in the developing world". Microbes Infect. 5 (8): 705–13. PMID 12814771.
  6. Elitsur Y, Dementieva Y, Rewalt M, Lawrence Z (2009). "Helicobacter pylori infection rate decreases in symptomatic children: a retrospective analysis of 13 years (1993-2005) from a gastroenterology clinic in West Virginia". J Clin Gastroenterol. 43 (2): 147–51. doi:10.1097/MCG.0b013e318157e4e7. PMID 18779740.
  7. Koletzko S, Jones NL, Goodman KJ, Gold B, Rowland M, Cadranel S; et al. (2011). "Evidence-based guidelines from ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN for Helicobacter pylori infection in children". J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 53 (2): 230–43. doi:10.1097/MPG.0b013e3182227e90. PMID 21558964.
  8. de Martel C, Parsonnet J (2006). "Helicobacter pylori infection and gender: a meta-analysis of population-based prevalence surveys". Dig. Dis. Sci. 51 (12): 2292–301. doi:10.1007/s10620-006-9210-5. PMID 17089189.
  9. Everhart, James E.; Kruszon‐Moran, Deanna; Perez‐Perez, Guillermo I.; Tralka, Tommie Sue; McQuillan, Geraldine (2000). "Seroprevalence and Ethnic Differences inHelicobacter pyloriInfection among Adults in the United States". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 181 (4): 1359–1363. doi:10.1086/315384. ISSN 0022-1899.
  10. Salih BA (2009). "Helicobacter pylori infection in developing countries: the burden for how long?". Saudi J Gastroenterol. 15 (3): 201–7. doi:10.4103/1319-3767.54743. PMC 2841423. PMID 19636185.
  11. Kawakami E, Machado RS, Ogata SK, Langner M (2008). "Decrease in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection during a 10-year period in Brazilian children". Arq Gastroenterol. 45 (2): 147–51. PMID 18622470.
  12. Goh KL, Chan WK, Shiota S, Yamaoka Y (2011). "Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection and public health implications". Helicobacter. 16 Suppl 1: 1–9. doi:10.1111/j.1523-5378.2011.00874.x. PMC 3719046. PMID 21896079.
  13. Everhart JE (2000). "Recent developments in the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori". Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 29 (3): 559–78. PMID 11030073.
  14. Peterson WL, Fendrick AM, Cave DR, Peura DA, Garabedian-Ruffalo SM, Laine L (2000). "Helicobacter pylori-related disease: guidelines for testing and treatment". Arch Intern Med. 160 (9): 1285–91. PMID 10809031.
  15. Staat MA, Kruszon-Moran D, McQuillan GM, Kaslow RA (1996). "A population-based serologic survey of Helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents in the United States". J. Infect. Dis. 174 (5): 1120–3. PMID 8896521.
  16. Hunt RH, Xiao SD, Megraud F, Leon-Barua R, Bazzoli F, van der Merwe S; et al. (2011). "Helicobacter pylori in developing countries. World Gastroenterology Organisation Global Guideline". J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 20 (3): 299–304. PMID 21961099.

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