Helicobacter pylori infection differential diagnosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Yamuna Kondapally, M.B.B.S[2]

Overview

Helicobacter pylori infection must be differentiated from other diseases that cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, epigastric pain and unexplained weight loss such as atrophic gastritis, GERD, gastrinoma, peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, stress-induced gastritis and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Differential Diagnosis

H. pylori infection must be differentiated from:[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]

Disease Cause Symptoms Diagnosis Other findings
Pain Nausea

&

Vomiting

Heartburn Belching or

Bloating

Weight loss Loss of

Appetite

Stools Endoscopy findings
Location Aggravating Factors Alleviating Factors
Acute gastritis Food Antacids - Black stools -
Chronic gastritis Food Antacids - H. pylori gastritis

Lymphocytic gastritis

  • Enlarged folds
  • Aphthoid erosions
-
Atrophic gastritis Epigastric pain - - - - H. pylori

Autoimmune

Autoimmune gastritis diagnosis include:

Crohn's disease - - - - -
  • Mucosal nodularity with cobblestoning
  • Multiple aphthous ulcers
  • Linier or serpiginous ulcerations
  • Thickened antral folds
  • Antral narrowing
  • Hypoperistalsis
  • Duodenal strictures
GERD
  • Lower esophageal sphincter abnormalities
  • Spicy food
  • Tight fitting clothing

(Suspect delayed gastric emptying)

- - - - Other symptoms:

Complications

Peptic ulcer disease

Duodenal ulcer

  • Pain aggravates with empty stomach

Gastric ulcer

  • Pain aggravates with food
  • Pain alleviates with food
- - - Gastric ulcers
  • Discrete mucosal lesions with a punched-out smooth ulcer base with whitish fibrinoid base
  • Most ulcers are at the junction of fundus and antrum
  • 0.5-2.5cm

Duodenal ulcers

Other diagnostic tests
Gastrinoma - -

(suspect gastric outlet obstruction)

- - - Useful in collecting the tissue for biopsy

Diagnostic tests

Gastric Adenocarcinoma - - Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
  • Multiple biopsies are taken to establish the diagnosis
Other symptoms
Primary gastric lymphoma - - - - - - - Useful in collecting the tissue for biopsy Other symptoms

References

  1. Sugimachi K, Inokuchi K, Kuwano H, Ooiwa T (1984). "Acute gastritis clinically classified in accordance with data from both upper GI series and endoscopy". Scand J Gastroenterol. 19 (1): 31–7. PMID 6710074.
  2. Sipponen P, Maaroos HI (2015). "Chronic gastritis". Scand J Gastroenterol. 50 (6): 657–67. doi:10.3109/00365521.2015.1019918. PMC 4673514. PMID 25901896.
  3. Sartor RB (2006). "Mechanisms of disease: pathogenesis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis". Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 3 (7): 390–407. doi:10.1038/ncpgasthep0528. PMID 16819502.
  4. Sipponen P (1989). "Atrophic gastritis as a premalignant condition". Ann Med. 21 (4): 287–90. PMID 2789799.
  5. Badillo R, Francis D (2014). "Diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease". World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther. 5 (3): 105–12. doi:10.4292/wjgpt.v5.i3.105. PMC 4133436. PMID 25133039.
  6. Ramakrishnan K, Salinas RC (2007). "Peptic ulcer disease". Am Fam Physician. 76 (7): 1005–12. PMID 17956071.
  7. Banasch M, Schmitz F (2007). "Diagnosis and treatment of gastrinoma in the era of proton pump inhibitors". Wien Klin Wochenschr. 119 (19–20): 573–8. doi:10.1007/s00508-007-0884-2. PMID 17985090.
  8. Dicken BJ, Bigam DL, Cass C, Mackey JR, Joy AA, Hamilton SM (2005). "Gastric adenocarcinoma: review and considerations for future directions". Ann Surg. 241 (1): 27–39. PMC 1356843. PMID 15621988.
  9. Ghimire P, Wu GY, Zhu L (2011). "Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma". World J Gastroenterol. 17 (6): 697–707. doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i6.697. PMC 3042647. PMID 21390139.

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