HLA-A34

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major histocompatibility complex (human), class I, A34
Alleles A*3401 </br> A*3402
Structure (See HLA-A)
Identifiers
3401 3402
Symbol(s) HLA-A
EBI-HLA A*3401
EBI-HLA A*3402
Shared data
Locus chr.6 6p21.31

HLA-A34 (A34) is an HLA-A serotype. A34 is a split antigen of the A10 broad antigen serotype. This serotype has related antigens A25 and A26[1] but A34 is most similar to A66.

Serotype

A34 serotype recognition of Some HLA A*34 allele-group gene products[2]
A*34 A34 A10 Sample
allele  %  % size (N)
3401 67 5 269
3402 89 2 996


A34 allele frequencies

A*3401

HLA A*3401 frequencies
freq
ref. Population (%)
[3] Kimberly (Indig. Austr.) 68.1
[3] Yuendumu (Indig. Austr.) 44.0
[3] Groote Eylandt (Indig. Austr.) 32.0
[3] Rabaul (New Britain, PNG) 30.2
[3] West Schrader Ranges (PNG) 29.2
[3] Cape York Penin. (Indig. Austr.) 29.1
[3] Ami (Indig. Taiwan) 21.9
[3] Goroka (E. Highlands, PNG) 20.5
[3] New Caledonia 15.5
[3] Madang (PNG) 13.6
[3] Ivatan (N. Islands, Phlippines) 13.0
[3] Wanigela (PNG) 12.7
[3] American Samoa 10.0
[3] Wosera (PNG) 9.0
[3] Riau Malay (Singapore) 6.0
[3] Karimui Plateau (PNG) 4.8
[3] Puyuma (Indig. Taiwan) 4.0
[3] Javanese (Singapore) 3.0
[3] Spain Catalonia Girona 1.1
[3] Thai (Singapore) 1.0
[3] Paiwan (Indig. Taiwan) 1.0
[3] Taiwan Hakka 0.9
[3] Kenya 0.7
[3] Thailand 0.7
[3] China South Han 0.5
[3] India North Delhi 0.5
[3] Chinese (Hong Kong) 0.3
[3] Chinese (Singapore) 0.3
[3] Zimbabwe Harare Shona 0.2

A*3401 when found outside of africa is primarily found in the South Asia, Austronesia and the South/Central part of the West Pacific Rim (WPR). It appears to have made it to Eastern Taiwan's indigenous tribes (Ami, Yami) but not more north of this region. It has not been detected in any sampling of Japan. Over most of the East Pacific Rim region were it is found it is limited to 1 or 2 common haplotypes in strong linkage disequilibrium. This indicates its presence in the WPR region is the result of recent migrations.

The A*3401 migration from Africa is supported by its presence in East Africa and South Africa and by current models of human migration, this allele was likely represented in the first wave of immigrants. However in areas were mixtures of these alleles are commonly found, Persian Gulf region and India, A*3401 is relatively uncommon, scarce, or absent. The exception is Saudi Arabia, in which A34 is at 2.8% and amoung Israeli Jews at 8.8%. Some reports that both A*3401 and A*3402 are in the region, but questionable whether these are perpetually maintained allele frequencies are simply recent migrants.

A*3402

HLA A*3402 frequencies
freq
ref. Population (%)
[3] Natal Zulu (S. Africa) 5.5
[3] Guinea Bissau 5.4
[3] Bandiagara (Mali) 3.6
[3] Shona (Zimbabwe) 3.3
[3] Kenya 2.8
[3] Tunisia Tunis 2.8
[3] Uganda Kampala 2.8
[3] Cameroon Bamileke 2.6
[3] Senegal Niokholo Mandenka 2.2
[3] Morocco Nador Metalsa 2.1
[3] Zambia Lusaka 1.2
[3] Sudanese 1.0
[3] Israel Arab Druse 0.5
[3] France South East 0.4
[3] Jordan Amman 0.3
[3] England Lancaster 0.1
[3] Ireland Northern 0.1

A*3402 is more frequently found in the west, it is found in Iberia and along the mediterranean, but its frequency is low, the exception may be in the Levant, but it is unclear whether this is A*3401 or A*3402.

A34-B Haplotypes

A34 is in strong linkage disequilibrium in many areas of the world, but particularly SE Asia and Oceania. The most prominent of these haplotypes is A34-Cw11(1)-B56. This haplotype is found from Western Australia to Taiwan to New Zealand indicating a recent genetic linkage between these peoples.

Another frequently found haplotype is the A34-B61 (A*3401:Cw*04:B*B4002) haplotype. This haplotype has a similar distribution as A34-B56.

These haplotypes indicate that long range/oversees migrations were taking place in Austronesias (late paleolithic) prehistory.

HLA A34-Cw11-B56</br> A*3401:Cw*0102:B*5601
freq
ref. Population (%)
[3] Ami (Indig. Taiwan) 19.9
Highlanders (PNG) 10.6
Maori (New Zealand) 5.6
Indigenous Australia 4.1
[3] Puyuma (Indig. Taiwan) 4.0

References

  1. Madrigal JA, Hildebrand WH, Belich MP; et al. (1993). "Structural diversity in the HLA-A10 family of alleles: correlations with serology". Tissue Antigens. 41 (2): 72–80. PMID 8475492. 
  2. derived from IMGT/HLA
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25 3.26 3.27 3.28 3.29 3.30 3.31 3.32 3.33 3.34 3.35 3.36 3.37 3.38 3.39 3.40 3.41 3.42 3.43 3.44 3.45 3.46 3.47 Middleton D, Menchaca L, Rood H, Komerofsky R (2003). "New allele frequency database: http://www.allelefrequencies.net". Tissue Antigens. 61 (5): 403–7. PMID 12753660.  External link in |title= (help)

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