H.pylori gastritis guideline recommendation

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Yamuna Kondapally, M.B.B.S[2]


American collage of gastroenterology guidelines for the management of Helicobacter pylori.

ACG recommendations

The following are the American College of Gastroenterology guidelines for H. pylori infection.[1]


  • The test-and-treat strategy for H. pyloriinfection is a proven management strategy for patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia who are under the age of 55 yr and have no “alarm features” (bleeding, anemia, early satiety, unexplained weight loss, progressive dysphagia, odynophagia, recurrent vomiting, family history of gastrointestinal cancer, previous esophagogastric malignancy).
Indications for Diagnosis and Treatment of H.pylori Infection
  • Persons using nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

Diagnostic Testing for H.pylori Infection

  • Testing for H. pylori should only be performed if the clinician plans to offer treatment for positive results.
  • Deciding which test to use in which situation relies heavily upon whether a patient requires evaluation with upper endoscopy and an understanding of the strengths, weaknesses, and costs of the individual tests.
Endoscopic testing Advantages Disadvantages
*1. Histology
    • Excellent sensitivity (>95%) and specificity (95%)
*2. Rapid urease testing
  • Inexpensive and provides rapid results.
  • Excellent specificity (99%) and very good sensitivity (98%) in properly selected patients
  • Sensitivity significantly reduced in the posttreatment setting
*3. Culture
  • Excellent specificity
  • Allows determination of antibiotic sensitivities
  • Expensive, difficult to perform, and not widely available
  • Poor sensitivity if adequate transport media are not available
  • Experience/ expertise required
*4. Poplymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  • Excellent sensitivity and specificity
  • Allows determination of antibiotic sensitivities
  • Methodology not standardized across laboratories and not widely available
  • Considered experimental
Nonendoscopic testing Advantages Disadvantages
1. ELISA serology (quantitative and qualitative)
  • Inexpensive and widely available
  • Very good NPV
  • Sensitivity (85-92%) and specificity (70-83%)
*2. Urea breath tests (13C and 14C)
  • Reimbursement and availability remain inconsistent
*3. Fecal antigen test
  • Identifies active H. pylori infection
  • Excellent positive and negative predictive values regardless of H. pylori prevalence
  • Useful before and after H. pylori therapy
  • Sensitivity (95%) and specificity (94%)
  • Polyclonal test less well validated than the urea breath test (UBT) in the post-treatment setting
  • Monoclonal test appears reliable before and after antibiotic therapy
  • Unpleasantness associated with collecting stool
*The sensitivity of all endoscopic and nonendoscopic tests that identify active H. pylori infection is reduced by the recent use of PPIs, bismuth, or antibiotics

PPI = proton pump inhibitor; PPV = positive predictive value; NPV = negative predictive value; UBT = urea breath test.

For more information on endoscopic diagnostic studies please click here

For more information on nonendoscopic diagnostic studies please click here

Treatment of H.pylori Infection

Primary Treatment of H.pylori Infection
  • Sequential therapy consisting of a PPI and amoxicillin for 5 days followed by a PPI, clarithromycin, and tinidazole for an additional 5 days may provide an alternative to clarithromycin-based triple or bismuth quadruple therapy but requires validation within the United States before it can be recommended as a first-line therapy.
First-Line Regimens for Helicobacter pylori Eradication
Regimen Duration Eradication Rates Comments
Standard dose PPI b.i.d. (esomeprazole is q.d.),

clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1,000 mg b.i.d.

10–14 70–85% Consider in non-penicillin allergic patients who have not previously received a macrolide
Standard dose PPI b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.

metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d.

10–14 70–85% Consider in penicillin allergic patients who have not previously received a macrolide or are unable to tolerate bismuth quadruple therapy
Bismuth subsalicylate 525 mg p.o. q.i.d. metronidazole

250 mg p.o. q.i.d., tetracycline 500 mg p.o. q.i.d.,

ranitidine 150 mg p.o. b.i.d. or standard dose

PPI q.d. to b.i.d.

10–14 75–90% Consider in penicillin allergic patients
PPI + amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d. followed by: 5 >90% Requires validation in North America
PPI, clarithromycin 500 mg, tinidazole 500 mg b.i.d. 5
PPI = proton pump inhibitor; pcn = penicillin; p.o. = orally; q.d. = daily; b.i.d. = twice daily; t.i.d. = three times daily; q.i.d. = four times daily.

*Standard dosages for PPIs are as follows:

lansoprazole 30 mg p.o., omeprazole 20 mg p.o., pantoprazole 40 mg p.o., rabeprazole 20 mg p.o., esomeprazole 40 mg p.o.

Note: the above recommended treatments are not all FDA approved. The FDA approved regimens are as follows:

1. Bismuth 525 mg q.i.d. + metronidazole 250 mg q.i.d. + tetracycline 500 mg q.i.d. × 2 wk + H2RA as directed × 4 wk.

2. Lansoprazole 30 mg b.i.d. + clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d. + amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d. × 10 days.

3. Omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. + clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d. + amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d. × 10 days.

4. esomeprazole 40 mg q.d. + clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d. + amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d. × 10 days.

5. Rabeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. + clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d. + amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d. × 7 days.

Salvage Therapy for Persistent H.pylori Infection

  • In patients with persistent H. pylori infection, every effort should be made to avoid antibiotics that have been previously taken by the patient.
  • Bismuth-based quadruple therapy for 7-14 days is an accepted salvage therapy.
  • Levofloxacin-based triple therapy for 10 days is another option in patients with persistent infection, which requires validation in the United States.
Regimen Duration Eradication Rates Comments
Bismuth quadruple therapy

PPI q.d. tetracycline, Pepto Bismol, metronidazole q.i.d.

7 68% (95% CI 62–74%) Accessible, cheap but high pill count and frequent mild side effects
Levofloxacin triple therapy

PPI, amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., levofloxacin 500 mg q.d.

10 10 87% (95% CI 82–92%) Requires validation in North America
For recommendations regarding rifabutin and furazolidone, please refer to the text.

PPI = proton pump inhibitor; q.d. = daily; q.i.d. = four times daily; b.i.d. = twice daily.