There are membrane-bound (type 1) and soluble (type 2) forms of guanylyl cyclases.
Membrane-bound (type 1) guanylyl cyclase is a single transmembrane protein and acts as an ANP receptor ..(Compare it with Adenylate Cyclase which is 12 transmembrane protein )
- Another type of Type 1 receptor binds to the ST E Coli enterotoxin and the gastrointestinal poly peptide Guanylin .
- Membrane-bound forms are enzyme-linked receptors:
Soluble (type 2) guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a receptor for NO (thus also called NO receptor). It is soluble i.e. completely intracellular. It is most notably involved in vasodilation. It is encoded by the genes GUCY1A2, GUCY1A3, GUCY1B2 and GUCY1B3.
Once formed, cGMP can be degraded by phosphodiesterases, which themselves are under different forms of regulation, depending on the tissue.
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