Guanylate cyclase

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Guanylate cyclase (EC, also known as guanylyl cyclase or GC) is a lyase enzyme.


It catalyzes the conversion of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and pyrophosphate:


There are membrane-bound (type 1) and soluble (type 2) forms of guanylyl cyclases.


Membrane-bound (type 1) guanylyl cyclase is a single transmembrane protein and acts as an ANP receptor ..(Compare it with Adenylate Cyclase which is 12 transmembrane protein )


Soluble (type 2) guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a receptor for NO (thus also called NO receptor). It is soluble i.e. completely intracellular. It is most notably involved in vasodilation. It is encoded by the genes GUCY1A2, GUCY1A3, GUCY1B2 and GUCY1B3.


Once formed, cGMP can be degraded by phosphodiesterases, which themselves are under different forms of regulation, depending on the tissue.

Like cAMP, cGMP is known to regulate many cellular proteins, such as protein kinases, ion channels, and phosphodiesterases.

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