Gastrointestinal bleeding

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Gastrointestinal bleeding Main page

Patient Information

Overview

Causes

Classification

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding
Lower gastrointestinal bleeding

Differential Diagnosis

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aditya Ganti M.B.B.S. [2]
Synonyms and Keywords: Blood loss from GI tract; bloody stool; blood in feces; PR bleeding; gastrointestinal hemorrhage; gastrointestinal hemorrhage; GI bleeding; bright red blood per rectum; BRBPR.

Overview

Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is defined as bleeding from any part of GI tract starting from mouth to anus. It can also be called as gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Based on the origin of bleeding it can be classified into upper gastrointestinal bleeding and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is defined as bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract that originates proximal to the ligament of Treitz. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding is defined as blood loss originating distal to the ligament of Treitz. The most common causes of UGIB are peptic ulcer disease and esophageal varice while diverticulosis is the most commonly responsible for lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Clinical presentation includes overt bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, rapid or slow, either manifested by hematemesis of fresh (blood-streaked to frankly bloody), old ('coffee ground') vomitus, melena and or as frank blood per rectum.

Common risk factors in the development of GI bleeding include advancing age, previous history of gastrointestinal bleed, chronic constipation, hematologic disorders, anticoagulants medications, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It is essential to distinguish between lower gastrointestinal bleeding and brisk upper gastrointestinal bleeding as they can present with similar symptoms. Patients with severe bleeding or hemodynamic disturbance require hospitalization and urgent investigation. Treatment depends on the cause and the severity of the bleeding.

Types of bleeding

Bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract can be of the following types:

  • Haematemesis: Vomiting fresh red blood.
  • Coffee ground emesis: Vomiting of altered black blood.
  • Melaena: Passage of black tarry stools.
  • Haemochezia: Passage of red blood per rectum (usually due to bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal tract but occasionally can be due to massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding).
  • Rebleeding: Defined as fresh haematemesis and/or melaena associated with the development of shock (pulse greater than 100 beats/min, systolic pressure less than 100 mm Hg), a fall in CVP greater than 5 mm Hg, or a reduction in haemoglobin concentration greater than 20 g/l over 24 hours. Rebleeding should always be confirmed by endoscopy.

Causes

Gastrointestinal bleeding Lethal causes Common causes Less common causes
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding
Lower gastrointestinal bleeding

Classification

The following flow chart elobarates the classification of gastrointestinal bleeding:

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gastrointestinal bleeding
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Upper GI bleeding
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lower GI bleeding
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Based on blood loss
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Based on severity of blood loss
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Overt
 
 
 
 
Occult
 
 
 
 
Obscure
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Severe
 
 
 
 
Moderate
 
 
 
 
Occult
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hematemesis
Coffee-ground emesis
Melena
 
 
 
 
Microscopic hemorrhage
Heme-occult positive stools
 
 
 
 
Source is not identified
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hematochezia
 
 
 
 
Hematochezia
 
 
 
 
Microscopic hemorrhage
Heme-occult positive stools

Differentiating Gastrointestinal Bleeding from other Diseases

Disease Clinical manifestations Diagnosis Comments
Symptoms Signs
Abdominal Pain Fever Rigors and chills Nausea or vomiting Jaundice Constipation Diarrhea Weight loss GI bleeding Hypo-

tension

Guarding Rebound Tenderness Bowel sounds Lab Findings Imaging
Peptic ulcer disease Diffuse ± + + Present if perforated Present if perforated Present if perforated N
  • Ascitic fluid
    • LDH > serum LDH
    • Glucose < 50mg/dl
    • Total protein > 1g/dl
Gastritis Epigastric ± + Present in chronic gastritis + N
Gastrointestinal perforation Diffuse + ± - ± + + + ± Hyperactive/hypoactive
  • WBC> 10,000
Acute diverticulitis LLQ + ± + + ± + Present in perforated diverticulitis + + Hypoactive
  • CT scan
  • Ultrasound
Inflammatory bowel disease Diffuse ± ± + + + Normal or hyperactive

Extra intestinal findings:

Infective colitis Diffuse + ± + + Present in fulminant colitis ± ± Hyperactive CT scan
  • Bowel wall thickening
  • Edema
Colon carcinoma Diffuse/localized ± ± + + ±
  • Normal or hyperactive if obstruction present
  • CBC
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
  • Colonoscopy
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy
  • Barium enema
  • CT colonography 
  • PILLCAM 2: A colon capsule for CRC screening may be used in patients with an incomplete colonoscopy who lacks obstruction
Budd-Chiari syndrome RUQ ± ± Present in liver failure leading to varices N
Findings on CT scan suggestive of Budd-Chiari syndrome include:
Ascitic fluid examination shows:
Hemochromatosis RUQ Present in cirrhotic patients N
  • >60% TS
  • >240 μg/L SF
  • Raised LFT
    Hyperglycemia
  • Ultrasound shows evidence of cirrhosis
Extra intestinal findings:
  • Hyperpigmentation
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Arthralgia
  • Impotence in males
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Hypopituitarism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Extrahepatic cancer
  • Prone to specific infections
Cirrhosis RUQ + + + + N US
  • Stigmata of liver disease
  • Cruveilhier- Baumgarten murmur
Mesenteric ischemia Periumbilical Present if bowel becomes gangrenous + + + + Present if bowel becomes gangrenous Present if bowel becomes gangrenous Hyperactive to absent CT angiography
  • SMA or SMV thrombosis
  • Also known as abdominal angina that worsens with eating
Acute ischemic colitis Diffuse + ± + + + + + + + Hyperactive then absent Abdominal x-ray
  • Distension and pneumatosis

CT scan

  • Double halo appearance, thumbprinting
  • Thickening of bowel
  • May lead to shock
Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm Diffuse ± + + + + N
  • Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma (FAST) 
  • Unstable hemodynamics
Intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal hemorrhage Diffuse ± ± + + N
  • ↓ Hb
  • ↓ Hct
  • CT scan

Abbreviations: RUQ= Right upper quadrant of the abdomen, LUQ= Left upper quadrant, LLQ= Left lower quadrant, RLQ= Right lower quadrant, LFT= Liver function test, SIRS= Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, ERCP= Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, IV= Intravenous, N= Normal, AMA= Anti mitochondrial antibodies, LDH= Lactate dehydrogenase, GI= Gastrointestinal, CXR= Chest X ray, IgA= Immunoglobulin A, IgG= Immunoglobulin G, IgM= Immunoglobulin M, CT= Computed tomography, PMN= Polymorphonuclear cells, ESR= Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP= C-reactive protein, TS= Transferrin saturation, SF= Serum Ferritin, SMA= Superior mesenteric artery, SMV= Superior mesenteric vein, ECG= Electrocardiogram

Symptomatic approach to the differential of Upper gastrointestinal bleeding

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gastrointestinal Bleeding
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Blood in Vomiting
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Black tarry stools
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Abdominal pain
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weight loss
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dysphagia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
No
 
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mallory-Weiss syndrome
Boerhaave syndrome
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weight loss
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dyspepsia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gastric cancer
Gastric ulcer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yes
 
 
 
 
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yes
 
 
 
 
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Esophageal carcinoma
 
 
 
 
 
Immune status
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Duodenal ulcer
 
 
 
 
 
Varices
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Immunocomprimised
 
 
 
 
Immunocompetent
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Infectious esophagitis
 
 
 
 
Pill induced esophagitis
 

Symptomatic approach to differential of lower gastrointestinal bleeding

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Blood in stools
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Abdominal pain
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yes
 
 
 
 
 
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fever
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rectal pain
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
H/O of constipation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
H/O of constipation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
Yes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weight loss
 
 
 
 
 
Diverticulosis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hemodynamic status
 
 
 
 
 
 
Diverticulitis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
Yes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Stable
 
 
 
 
 
Unstable
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Polyps
 
 
 
 
 
Colon cancer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ischemic colitis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Stool culture
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Positive
 
 
 
 
 
 
Negative
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Infectious colitis
 
 
 
 
 
 
Inflammatory bowel disease
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weight Loss
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anal fissure
External Hemorrhoids
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rectal cancer
Colon cancer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Angiodysplasia
Polyps



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