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External IDsGeneCards: [1]
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)n/an/a
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View/Edit Human

Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(olf) subunit alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNAL gene.[1][2]


  1. Wilkie TM, Gilbert DJ, Olsen AS, Chen XN, Amatruda TT, Korenberg JR, Trask BJ, de Jong P, Reed RR, Simon MI, et al. (Jun 1993). "Evolution of the mammalian G protein alpha subunit multigene family". Nat Genet. 1 (2): 85–91. doi:10.1038/ng0592-85. PMID 1302014.
  2. "Entrez Gene: GNAL guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha activating activity polypeptide, olfactory type".

Further reading

  • Zigman JM, Westermark GT, LaMendola J, et al. (1994). "Human G(olf) alpha: complementary deoxyribonucleic acid structure and expression in pancreatic islets and other tissues outside the olfactory neuroepithelium and central nervous system". Endocrinology. 133 (6): 2508–14. doi:10.1210/en.133.6.2508. PMID 8243272.
  • Astesano A, Regnauld K, Ferrand N, et al. (1999). "Cellular and subcellular expression of Golf/Gs and Gq/G11 alpha-subunits in rat pancreatic endocrine cells". J. Histochem. Cytochem. 47 (3): 289–302. doi:10.1177/002215549904700303. PMID 10026232.
  • Vuoristo JT, Berrettini WH, Overhauser J, et al. (2001). "Sequence and genomic organization of the human G-protein Golfalpha gene (GNAL) on chromosome 18p11, a susceptibility region for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia". Mol. Psychiatry. 5 (5): 495–501. doi:10.1038/ PMID 11032382.
  • Zill P, Engel R, Baghai TC, et al. (2002). "Analysis of polymorphisms in the olfactory G-protein Golf in major depression". Psychiatr. Genet. 12 (1): 17–22. doi:10.1097/00041444-200203000-00002. PMID 11901355.
  • Régnauld K, Nguyen QD, Vakaet L, et al. (2002). "G-protein alpha(olf) subunit promotes cellular invasion, survival, and neuroendocrine differentiation in digestive and urogenital epithelial cells". Oncogene. 21 (25): 4020–31. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1205498. PMID 12037684.
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMC 139241. PMID 12477932.
  • Zill P, Malitas PN, Bondy B, et al. (2004). "Analysis of polymorphisms in the alpha-subunit of the olfactory G-protein Golf in lithium-treated bipolar patients". Psychiatr. Genet. 13 (2): 65–9. doi:10.1097/01.ypg.0000057881.80011.45. PMID 12782961.
  • Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, et al. (2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40–5. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID 14702039.
  • Corradi JP, Ravyn V, Robbins AK, et al. (2005). "Alternative transcripts and evidence of imprinting of GNAL on 18p11.2". Mol. Psychiatry. 10 (11): 1017–25. doi:10.1038/ PMID 16044173.
  • Ravyn V, Bostwick JR (2006). "Functional coupling of the Galpha(olf) variant XLGalpha(olf) with the human adenosine A2A receptor". J. Recept. Signal Transduct. Res. 26 (4): 241–58. doi:10.1080/10799890600710592. PMID 16818375.