Fructosamine

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Diabetes mellitus
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Fructosamine
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Overview

Fructosamine is a compound which can be considered as the result of a reaction between fructose and ammonia or an amine (with a molecule of water being released). A fructosamine is also formed when carbonyl group of glucose reacts with an amino group of a protein, as the double bond to oxygen moves from the end carbon atom to the next carbon atom and water is released. Fructosamines formed from blood proteins such as serum albumin are known as Glycated Serum Protein (GSP) or Glycated Albumin, and are used to identify the plasma glucose concentration over time and so assess diabetic control.[1]

Indications

More commonly diabetics have their glucose control assessed with the Glycosylated hemoglobin measurement that assesses average glucose levels over the preceding 6 weeks; as reflected by the permanent glycosylation of a small fraction of the hemoglobin molecules in their blood. However, this is not appropriate where there has been a recent change in diet or treatment within 6 weeks, nor if there are abnormalities of red blood cell aging process or mix of hemoglobin subtypes (predominantly HbA in normal adults). Hence people with recent blood loss or hemolytic anemia, or hemoglobinopathy such as sickle-cell disease are not suitable for some glycosylated hemoglobin methods that do not account for higher-turnover hemoglobin. Fructosamine is used in these circumstances, as it also reflects an average of blood glucose levels, but over a shorter period of 2 to 3 weeks. Fructosamine is also of use in conditions, such as pregnancy, in which hormonal changes cause greater short-term fluctuation in glucose concentrations.

Interpretation of Results

There is no standard reference range available for this test. The reference values depends upon the factors of patient age, gender, sample population and test method. Hence each laboratory reports will include their specific reference range for the test.

An increase in fructosamine in lab testing results usually means an increase in glucose in the blood.

Approximately each change of 3.3 mmol (60 mg/dl) in average blood sugar levels will give rise to changes of 2% HbA1c and 75 µmol fructosamine values.[2]

Related Chapters

References

  1. Delpierre G, Collard F, Fortpied J and Van Sschaftingen E (2002). "Fructosamine 3-kinase is involved in an intracellular deglycation pathway in human erythrocytes" (PDF). Biochem. J. 365: 801–8. 
  2. Bartol T (December 1, 2000). "Comparison of Blood Glucose, HbA1c, and Fructosamine". Retrieved 2007-06-04.  - gives a comparison chart and cites following source:
    • Nathan DM, Singer DE, Hurxthal K, Goodson JD (1984). "The clinical information value of the glycosylated hemoglobin assay". N. Engl. J. Med. 310 (6): 341–6. PMID 6690962. 

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