Fibromuscular dysplasia physical examination

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief:

Overview

Patients with [disease name] usually appear [general appearance]. Physical examination of patients with [disease name] is usually remarkable for [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

Physical Examination

  • Physical examination of patients with fibromuscular dysplasia without clinical suspicion is usually normal. However the most common presentation of renal artery FMD is renovascular hypertension, but in the physical examination of patients enrolled in the US registry for fibromuscular dysplasia mean blood pressure was 130/75 mm Hg.[1]

Physical examination of patients with [disease name] is usually normal.

OR

Physical examination of patients with [disease name] is usually remarkable for [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

OR

The presence of [finding(s)] on physical examination is diagnostic of [disease name].

OR

The presence of [finding(s)] on physical examination is highly suggestive of [disease name].

Appearance of the Patient

  • Patients with [disease name] usually appear [general appearance].

Vital Signs

  • High-grade / low-grade fever
  • Hypothermia / hyperthermia may be present
  • Tachycardia with regular pulse or (ir)regularly irregular pulse
  • Bradycardia with regular pulse or (ir)regularly irregular pulse
  • Tachypnea / bradypnea
  • Kussmal respirations may be present in _____ (advanced disease state)
  • Weak/bounding pulse / pulsus alternans / paradoxical pulse / asymmetric pulse
  • High/low blood pressure with normal pulse pressure / wide pulse pressure / narrow pulse pressure

Skin

  • Skin examination of patients with [disease name] is usually normal.

OR

HEENT

  • HEENT examination of patients with [disease name] is usually normal.

OR

  • Abnormalities of the head/hair may include ___
  • Evidence of trauma
  • Icteric sclera
  • Nystagmus
  • Extra-ocular movements may be abnormal
  • Pupils non-reactive to light / non-reactive to accommodation / non-reactive to neither light nor accommodation
  • Ophthalmoscopic exam may be abnormal with findings of ___
  • Hearing acuity may be reduced
  • Weber test may be abnormal (Note: A positive Weber test is considered a normal finding / A negative Weber test is considered an abnormal finding. To avoid confusion, you may write "abnormal Weber test".)
  • Rinne test may be positive (Note: A positive Rinne test is considered a normal finding / A negative Rinne test is considered an abnormal finding. To avoid confusion, you may write "abnormal Rinne test".)
  • Exudate from the ear canal
  • Tenderness upon palpation of the ear pinnae/tragus (anterior to ear canal)
  • Inflamed nares / congested nares
  • Purulent exudate from the nares
  • Facial tenderness
  • Erythematous throat with/without tonsillar swelling, exudates, and/or petechiae

Neck

  • Neck examination of patients with [disease name] is usually normal.

OR

Lungs

  • Pulmonary examination of patients with [disease name] is usually normal.

OR

  • Asymmetric chest expansion OR decreased chest expansion
  • Lungs are hyporesonant OR hyperresonant
  • Fine/coarse crackles upon auscultation of the lung bases/apices unilaterally/bilaterally
  • Rhonchi
  • Vesicular breath sounds OR distant breath sounds
  • Expiratory wheezing OR inspiratory wheezing with normal OR delayed expiratory phase
  • Wheezing may be present
  • Egophony present/absent
  • Bronchophony present/absent
  • Normal/reduced tactile fremitus

Heart

  • Cardiovascular examination of patients with [disease name] is usually normal.

OR

  • Chest tenderness upon palpation
  • PMI within 2 cm of the sternum (PMI) / Displaced point of maximal impulse (PMI) suggestive of ____
  • Heave / thrill
  • Friction rub
  • S1
  • S2
  • S3
  • S4
  • Gallops
  • A high/low grade early/late systolic murmur / diastolic murmur best heard at the base/apex/(specific valve region) may be heard using the bell/diaphgram of the otoscope

Abdomen

  • Abdominal examination of patients with [disease name] is usually normal.

OR

Back

  • Back examination of patients with [disease name] is usually normal.

OR

  • Point tenderness over __ vertebrae (e.g. L3-L4)
  • Sacral edema
  • Costovertebral angle tenderness bilaterally/unilaterally
  • Buffalo hump

Genitourinary

  • Genitourinary examination of patients with [disease name] is usually normal.

OR

  • A pelvic/adnexal mass may be palpated
  • Inflamed mucosa
  • Clear/(color), foul-smelling/odorless penile/vaginal discharge

Neuromuscular

  • Neuromuscular examination of patients with [disease name] is usually normal.

OR

  • Patient is usually oriented to persons, place, and time
  • Altered mental status
  • Glasgow coma scale is ___ / 15
  • Clonus may be present
  • Hyperreflexia / hyporeflexia / areflexia
  • Positive (abnormal) Babinski / plantar reflex unilaterally/bilaterally
  • Muscle rigidity
  • Proximal/distal muscle weakness unilaterally/bilaterally
  • ____ (finding) suggestive of cranial nerve ___ (roman numerical) deficit (e.g. Dilated pupils suggestive of CN III deficit)
  • Unilateral/bilateral upper/lower extremity weakness
  • Unilateral/bilateral sensory loss in the upper/lower extremity
  • Positive straight leg raise test
  • Abnormal gait (describe gait: e.g. ataxic (cerebellar) gait / steppage gait / waddling gait / choeiform gait / Parkinsonian gait / sensory gait)
  • Positive/negative Trendelenburg sign
  • Unilateral/bilateral tremor (describe tremor, e.g. at rest, pill-rolling)
  • Normal finger-to-nose test / Dysmetria
  • Absent/present dysdiadochokinesia (palm tapping test)

Extremities

  • Extremities examination of patients with [disease name] is usually normal.

OR

  • Clubbing
  • Cyanosis
  • Pitting/non-pitting edema of the upper/lower extremities
  • Muscle atrophy
  • Fasciculations in the upper/lower extremity

References

  1. Jeffrey W. Olin, James Froehlich, Xiaokui Gu, J. Michael Bacharach, Kim Eagle, Bruce H. Gray, Michael R. Jaff, Esther S. H. Kim, Pam Mace, Alan H. Matsumoto, Robert D. McBane, Eva Kline-Rogers, Christopher J. White & Heather L. Gornik (2012). "The United States Registry for Fibromuscular Dysplasia: results in the first 447 patients". Circulation. 125 (25): 3182–3190. PMID 22615343. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.091223. 

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