Epilepsy epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Fahimeh Shojaei, M.D. Vishnu Vardhan Serla M.B.B.S. [2]

Overview

Epilepsy's approximate annual incidence rate is 40–70 per 100,000 in industrialized countries and 100–190 per 100,000 in resource-poor countries; socioeconomically deprived people are at higher risk. The prevalence of active epilepsy is roughly in the range 5–10 per 1000 people. Many studies have demonstrated that mortality rate is higher in people with epilepsy. The most common causes of death in these patients are trauma, pneumonia, suicide, status epilepticus and sudden unexpected death. Epilepsy is one of the most common of the serious neurological disorders. Genetic, congenital, and developmental conditions are mostly associated with it among younger patients; tumors are more likely over age 40; head trauma and central nervous system infections may occur at any age. There is no evidence of race differences in incidence and prevalence of epilepsy. It was demonstrated that nonsymptomatic epilepsy such as cryptogenic localization-related and idiopathic generalized epilepsy are more common in women while symptomatic localization-related epilepsy is more common in men.

Epidemiology and Demographics

Incidence

  • Epilepsy's approximate annual incidence rate is 40–70 per 100,000 in industrialized countries and 100–190 per 100,000 in resource-poor countries; socioeconomically deprived people are at higher risk. In industrialized countries the incidence rate decreased in children but increased among the elderly during the three decades prior to 2003, for reasons not fully understood.[1]

Prevalence

  • The prevalence of active epilepsy is roughly in the range 5–10 per 1000 people. Up to 50 per 1000 people experience nonfebrile seizures at some point in life; epilepsy's lifetime prevalence is relatively high because most patients either stop having seizures or (less commonly) die. [1]

Case-fatality rate/Mortality rate

Age

Race

Gender

  • It was demonstrated that nonsymptomatic epilepsy such as cryptogenic localization-related and idiopathic generalized epilepsy are more common in women while symptomatic localization-related epilepsy is more common in men.[11]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Sander JW (2003). "The epidemiology of epilepsy revisited". Curr Opin Neurol. 16 (2): 165–70. PMID 12644744.
  2. Rafnsson V, Olafsson E, Hauser WA, Gudmundsson G (October 2001). "Cause-specific mortality in adults with unprovoked seizures. A population-based incidence cohort study". Neuroepidemiology. 20 (4): 232–6. doi:10.1159/000054795. PMID 11684898.
  3. Camfield CS, Camfield PR, Veugelers PJ (June 2002). "Death in children with epilepsy: a population-based study". Lancet. 359 (9321): 1891–5. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08779-2.
  4. Logroscino G, Hesdorffer DC, Cascino GD, Annegers JF, Bagiella E, Hauser WA (February 2002). "Long-term mortality after a first episode of status epilepticus". Neurology. 58 (4): 537–41. PMID 11865129.
  5. Wu YW, Shek DW, Garcia PA, Zhao S, Johnston SC (April 2002). "Incidence and mortality of generalized convulsive status epilepticus in California". Neurology. 58 (7): 1070–6. PMID 11940695.
  6. Sillanpää M, Shinnar S (September 2002). "Status epilepticus in a population-based cohort with childhood-onset epilepsy in Finland". Ann. Neurol. 52 (3): 303–10. doi:10.1002/ana.10286. PMID 12205642.
  7. Nilsson L, Ahlbom A, Farahmand BY, Asberg M, Tomson T (June 2002). "Risk factors for suicide in epilepsy: a case control study". Epilepsia. 43 (6): 644–51. PMID 12060025.
  8. Hirtz D, Thurman DJ, Gwinn-Hardy K, Mohamed M, Chaudhuri AR, Zalutsky R (2007-01-30). "How common are the 'common' neurologic disorders?". Neurology. 68 (5): 326–37. PMID 17261678. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  9. Annegers JF, Dubinsky S, Coan SP, Newmark ME, Roht L (April 1999). "The incidence of epilepsy and unprovoked seizures in multiethnic, urban health maintenance organizations". Epilepsia. 40 (4): 502–6. PMID 10219279.
  10. Benn EK, Hauser WA, Shih T, Leary L, Bagiella E, Dayan P, Green R, Andrews H, Thurman DJ, Hesdorffer DC (August 2008). "Estimating the incidence of first unprovoked seizure and newly diagnosed epilepsy in the low-income urban community of Northern Manhattan, New York City". Epilepsia. 49 (8): 1431–9. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2008.01564.x. PMID 18336560.
  11. Christensen J, Kjeldsen MJ, Andersen H, Friis ML, Sidenius P (June 2005). "Gender differences in epilepsy". Epilepsia. 46 (6): 956–60. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2005.51204.x. PMID 15946339.

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