Epilepsy causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Fahimeh Shojaei, M.D., Vishnu Vardhan Serla M.B.B.S. [2]

Overview

Common causes of epilepsy include Head trauma, Brain tumor, Brain hemorrhage, Encephalitis, Hypoglycemia, Hypoxic encephalopathy, Stroke, Cerebral palsy, Electrolyte disturbances, febrile seizures, Intoxication and uremia.

Causes

Life-threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes of epilepsy include:[1][2][3][4][5][6]

Common Causes

Common causes of epilepsy may include:[7][8][9][10][11][12]

less common causes

Less common causes of epilepsy include:[13]

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Arrythmias, Cardiac failure, Carotid Sinus Syndrome, Hypertensive encephalopathy, Hypotension, Hypovolemia, Orthostatic hypotension, Stokes-Adams Syndrome, Syncope, Valvular heart disease
Chemical / poisoning Intoxication, Benzene hexachloride, Lead poisoning, Carbonmonoxide poisoning
Dermatologic Rud Syndrome
Drug Side Effect 4-aminopyridine, acyclovir, alcohol, almotriptan, alprazolam, aminophylline, amitriptyline, amoxapine , amphetamines , amphotericin B, aripiprazole, atomoxetine, atorvastatin, azathioprine, baclofen, benztropine , bromocriptine, bupivacaine, bupropion, buspirone, busulfan, cabergoline, caffeine, captopril, carisoprodol, carvedilol, cefepime, cefixime, cefotetan , ceftazidime, cefuroxime, cephalexin, chlorambucil, chloroquine, chlorpromazine, cilastatin/imipenem, ciprofloxacin, cisplatinum, citalopram , clomiphene , clomipramine, clonazepam, clorazepate, clozapine, cocaine, cyclobenzaprine, cyclobenzaprine , cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin, dantrolene , desipramine, dexmethylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, diazepam , dicyclomine, diphenhydramine, donepezil, doripenem, doxepin, doxorubicin, dronabinol, duloxetine, efavirenz, enfluraneketamine, entacapone, epoetin, escitalopram, estazolam, estrogen, eszopiclone, etoposide, fentanyl, fluoxetine, fluphenazine, flurazepam, fluvastatin, ganciclovir, gemifloxacin, Ginkgo biloba, glatiramer, haloperidol, hydroxyzine, imipenem, indomethacin, interferon beta-1a, interferon beta-1b, Isoniazid (INH), isotretinoin, ivermectin, ketorolac, levofloxacin, lidocaine, lindane, linezolid, lithium, lomefloxacin , lorazepam, loxapine, mefenamic acid, mefloquine, memantine, meperidine, mephobarbital, meropenem, methocarbamol, methotrexate, methylphenidate, metronidazole, mirtazapine, mitoxantrone, modafinil, molindone, montelukast, moxifloxacin, mycophenolate, nalidixic acid, nortriptyline , ofloxacin, olanzapine, ondansetron, oxybutynin, oxycodone, oxymorphone, oxytocin, paroxetine, pentazocine, phenobarbital, phenylpropanolamine, pimozide, pramipexole , prednisone, primidone , procaine , promethazine, propoxyphene , protriptyline, quetiapine , ramelteon, rasagiline, risperidone, rivastigmine, ropinirole, selegiline, sertraline, sibutramine, sildenafil, sodium oxydate, sumatriptan , tacrine, tacrolimus, tadalafil, temazepam, temozolomide, terbutaline, thalidomide, theophylline, thioridazine, thiothixene, ticlopidine, tinidazole, tizanidine, tolcapone, tolterodine, torsemide, tramadol, tranylcypromine , triazolam, trifluoperazine, trihexyphenidyl, Trovafloxacin mesylate, valacyclovir, valsartan, vardenafil, venlafaxine, vincristine, zaleplon, zanamivir, ziconotide, zidovudine, ziprasidone, ziprasidone, zolpidem
Ear Nose Throat Feigenbaum-Bergeron-Richardson syndrome, Wittwer sydnrome, Onychodystrophy -- deafness, Ramsay Hunt Syndrome Type 2, Renier-Gabreels-Jasper syndrome
Endocrine Hyperglycemia, Hyperthyroidism, Hypoglycemia, Hypoparathyroidism, Hypothyroidism, Mental retardation -- dysmorphism -- hypogonadism -- diabetes complex, X-linked Hypoparathyroidism , DEND syndrome, Feigenbaum-Bergeron-Richardson syndrome
Environmental Heat stroke
Gastroenterologic Liver disease -- Retinitis pigmentosa -- polyneuropathy -- epilepsy complex
Genetic Angelman syndrome, Chromosome 15q triplication syndrome, Chromosome 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome, Ring Chromosome 20, Chromosome 4, trisomy 4p, Cornelia de Lange syndrome 2, Deafness -- congenital onychodystrophy - recessive form, DEND syndrome, Down's Syndrome, Flynn-Aird syndrome, Lipoid proteinosis of Urbach and Wiethe, X-linked Mental retardation syndromic due to JARID1C mutation, X-linked Wittwer type Mental retardation, Mowat-Wilson syndrome, OFD syndrome type IX, Onychodystrophy -- deafness, Renier-Gabreels-Jasper syndrome, Rud Syndrome, X-linked Spasticity -- mental retardation -- epilepsy, Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome, X-linked Hypoparathyroidism , X-linked Lissencephaly - 2
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease

Bacteria: Tetany, Meningitis, Brain abscess, Encephalitis, Neurosyphilis

Virus: German measles, HIV, Meningitis, Ramsay Hunt Syndrome Type 2, Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

Parasites: Toxoplasmosis, Neurocysticercosis, Schistosomiasis, Trypanosomiasis, Cerebral malaria, Paragonimiasis, Ascariasis

Musculoskeletal / Ortho Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia, Fukuyama type muscular dystrophy, Gurrieri-Sammito-Bellussi syndrome, Epilepsy -- microcephaly -- skeletal dysplasia, Onychodystrophy -- deafness
Neurologic Alzheimer's Disease, Angelman syndrome, Anophthalmia -- hypyothalamo-pituitary insufficiency, Astrocytoma, Autism, Benign familial infantile epilepsy, Brain abscess, Brain hemorrhage, Brain injury, Brain tumor, Cerebral Palsy, Concussion, Cortical dysplasia -- focal epilepsy syndrome, Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Diomedi-Bernardi-Placidi syndrome, DEND syndrome, Double cortex syndrome, Encephalitis, Familial Encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies, Epilepsy -- mental deterioration - Finnish type, Epilepsy -- microcephaly -- skeletal dysplasia, Epileptic encephalopathy - Lennox-Gastaut type, Flynn-Aird syndrome, Familial porencephaly, Focal cortical dysplasia, Huntington's Chorea, Hypoxic encephalopathy, Idiopathic generalized, Intracranial hemorrhage and trauma, Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome, Liver disease -- retinitis pigmentosa -- polyneuropathy -- epilepsy complex, Meningioma, Microcephaly -- mental retardation -- spasticity -- epilepsy complex, Microcephaly -- pontocerebellar hypoplasia -- dyskinesia complex, Microencephaly, Migraine, Movement disorders, Myoclonic progressive familial epilepsy, Myoclonus progressive epilepsy of Unverricht and Lundborg, Meningitis, Neurocysticercosis, X-linked Hamel type Neurodegenerative syndrome, Neurofibromatosis-1, Neurosyphilis, Perisylvian syndrome, Pick's Disease, Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, Pontocerebellar hypoplasia with infantile spinal muscular atrophy, Presenile dementia, Reye's Syndrome, Renier-Gabreels-Jasper syndrome, Rud Syndrome, Space occupying lesion of the brain, Spastic tetraplegic -- cerebral palsy, Spinocerebellar ataxia 13, Stokes-Adams Syndrome, Stroke, Sturge-Weber Syndrome, Subependymal nodular heterotopia, Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA), Tuberous Sclerosis, X-linked Spasticity -- mental retardation -- epilepsy, X-linked Lissencephaly - 2, Wittwer sydnrome
Nutritional / Metabolic 2-Hydroxyglutaricaciduria, Acute intermittent porphyria, Carbohydrate deficiency glycoprotein syndrome type II, Gaucher's Disease, Type 2 Hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency, Pellagra, Phenylketonuria, Pyridoxine deficiency
Obstetric/Gynecologic Childbirth trauma, Eclampsia, Perinatal hypoxia or trauma
Oncologic Metastasis, Astrocytoma, Meningioma, Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome
Opthalmologic Wittwer sydnrome, Anophthalmia -- hypyothalamo-pituitary insufficiency, Liver disease -- retinitis pigmentosa -- polyneuropathy -- epilepsy complex, Rud Syndrome
Overdose / Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric Panic attack
Pulmonary Breath-holding spells (pediatric), Alveolar Hydatid Disease, Hyperventilation, Pediatric Apnea, Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, Hypoxic encephalopathy
Renal / Electrolyte Alkalosis, Chronic Renal Failure, Hypernatremia, Hypocalcemia, Hypomagnesemia, Hyponatremia, Uremia, Feigenbaum-Bergeron-Richardson syndrome
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Systemic lupus erythematosus, Polyarteritis nodosa
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Head trauma
Urologic No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Alcohol withdrawal, Battaglia Neri syndrome, Degenerative disease, Febrile Seizures, Fryns-Aftimos syndrome, McDowall syndrome, Mental retardation -- epilepsy -- bulbous nose, Mental retardation -- epilepsy, Belgian type Mental retardation syndrome, Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, Night terrors, Photosensitive epilepsy, Schaefer-Stein-Oshman syndrome, Sleep disorders, Sleepwalking, Vasovagal syncope

Causes in Alphabetical Order









References

  1. Annegers JF, Coan SP (October 2000). "The risks of epilepsy after traumatic brain injury". Seizure. 9 (7): 453–7. doi:10.1053/seiz.2000.0458. PMID 11034867.
  2. Englot DJ, Chang EF, Vecht CJ (2016). "Epilepsy and brain tumors". Handb Clin Neurol. 134: 267–85. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-802997-8.00016-5. PMC 4803433. PMID 26948360.
  3. Faught E, Peters D, Bartolucci A, Moore L, Miller PC (August 1989). "Seizures after primary intracerebral hemorrhage". Neurology. 39 (8): 1089–93. PMID 2761703.
  4. Misra UK, Tan CT, Kalita J (August 2008). "Viral encephalitis and epilepsy". Epilepsia. 49 Suppl 6: 13–8. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2008.01751.x. PMID 18754956.
  5. Sloper JJ, Johnson P, Powell TP (September 1980). "Selective degeneration of interneurons in the motor cortex of infant monkeys following controlled hypoxia: a possible cause of epilepsy". Brain Res. 198 (1): 204–9. PMID 7407585.
  6. Chung JM (May 2014). "Seizures in the acute stroke setting". Neurol. Res. 36 (5): 403–6. doi:10.1179/1743132814Y.0000000352. PMID 24641717.
  7. Diaconu G, Burlea M, Grigore I, Frasin M (2003). "[Epilepsy in different types of cerebral palsy]". Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi (in Romanian). 107 (1): 136–9. PMID 14755984.
  8. Riggs JE (February 2002). "Neurologic manifestations of electrolyte disturbances". Neurol Clin. 20 (1): 227–39, vii. PMID 11754308.
  9. Markand ON (2003). "Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (childhood epileptic encephalopathy)". J Clin Neurophysiol. 20 (6): 426–41. PMID 14734932.
  10. Shinnar S, Glauser TA (January 2002). "Febrile seizures". J. Child Neurol. 17 Suppl 1: S44–52. doi:10.1177/08830738020170010601. PMID 11918463.
  11. Cendes F, Andermann F, Carpenter S, Zatorre RJ, Cashman NR (January 1995). "Temporal lobe epilepsy caused by domoic acid intoxication: evidence for glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in humans". Ann. Neurol. 37 (1): 123–6. doi:10.1002/ana.410370125. PMID 7818246.
  12. D'Hooge R, Pei YQ, Marescau B, De Deyn PP (October 1992). "Convulsive action and toxicity of uremic guanidino compounds: behavioral assessment and relation to brain concentration in adult mice". J. Neurol. Sci. 112 (1–2): 96–105. PMID 1469446.
  13. Keyser A, De Bruijn SF (1991). "Epileptic manifestations and vitamin B1 deficiency". Eur. Neurol. 31 (3): 121–5. doi:10.1159/000116660. PMID 2044623.

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