Endocarditis risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Maliha Shakil, M.D. [2]

Overview

Common risk factors for endocarditis include prosthetic heart valves, valvular heart disease, congenital heart disease, intravenous drug use, age-related degenerative valvular lesions, immunosuppression, and colon cancer.[1]

Risk Factors

Common risk factors in the development of infective endocarditis are:[1]

Common risk factors in the development of nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis include:[3]

Epidemiological Clues in Etiological Diagnosis of Culture-Negative Endocarditis[4]

Epidemiological features Common Microorganism(s)
Injection drug use
Indwelling cardiovascular medical devices
Genitourinary disorders
Genitourinary infection
Genitourinary manipulation
Pregnancy
Delivery
Abortion
Chronic skin disorders
Poor dental health, dental procedures
  • Viridans group streptococci
  • “Nutritionally variant streptococci”
  • Abiotrophia defectiva
  • Granulicatella sp
  • Gemella sp
  • HACEK organisms
Alcoholism, cirrhosis
Burn patients
  • S. aureus
  • Aerobic Gram-negative bacilli, including
Diabetes mellitus
Early ( < 1 y) prosthetic valve placement
Late ( > 1 y) prosthetic valve placement
Dog–cat exposure
Contact with contaminated milk
Contact with infected farm animals
Homeless, body lice
AIDS
Pneumonia, meningitis
Solid organ transplant
Gastrointestinal lesions

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Infective endocarditis. Wikipedia (2015). URL=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infective_endocarditis#Pathogenesis Accessed on September 22, 2015
  2. Mylonakis E, Calderwood SB (2001). "Infective endocarditis in adults". N Engl J Med. 345 (18): 1318–30. doi:10.1056/NEJMra010082. PMID 11794152.
  3. Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Wikipedia (2015). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nonbacterial_thrombotic_endocarditis Accessed on September 23, 2015
  4. Baddour, LM.; Wilson, WR.; Bayer, AS.; Fowler, VG.; Bolger, AF.; Levison, ME.; Ferrieri, P.; Gerber, MA.; Tani, LY. (2005). "Infective endocarditis: diagnosis, antimicrobial therapy, and management of complications: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Councils on Clinical Cardiology, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, American Heart Association: endorsed by the Infectious Diseases Society of America". Circulation. 111 (23): e394–434. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.165564. PMID 15956145. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)



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