Xeroderma

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] ; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief:Aditya Govindavarjhulla, M.B.B.S. [2]

Synonyms and keywords: xerodermia, dry skin

Overview

Xeroderma (literally "dry skin")is a condition involving the integumentary system, which in most cases can safely be treated with emollients and/or moisturizers. Xeroderma occurs most commonly on the lower legs, arms, the sides of the abdomen and thighs. Symptoms most associated with Xeroderma are scaling (the visible peeling of the outer skin layer), itching and cracks in the skin.

Causes

Xeroderma is a very common condition. It happens more often in the winter where the cold air outside and the hot air inside creates a low relative humidity. This causes the skin to lose moisture and it may crack and peel. Bathing/showering too frequently, especially if one is using harsh soaps, may also contribute to xeroderma. Xeroderma can also be caused by a deficiency of vitamin A, systemic illness, overexposure to sunlight or some medication.

Differential diagnosis

Common causes

Causes by Organ system

Cardiovascular Shock, Varicose veins
Chemical / poisoning 1-Pentanethiol , 2-Hexanone , Acetic Anhydride , Acetophenone , Amitrole , Anisole , Boric Acid , Carbinoxamine , Chlorobenzene , Contact dermatitis , Cyclohexanol , Devil's trumpet poisoning , Ethylamine , Ethylene Dichloride , Hexane , Isopropyl Alcohol , Jimsonweed poisoning , Kawanism , Kerosene , Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether , Methylene Chloride , Nicotine addiction , Nitromethane , N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone , Nutmeg , Phenmedipham , Soap, Tetrachloroethane , Tetrachloroethylene , Tetrahydrofuran
Dermatologic Asteatotic dermatitis , Athlete's foot , Atopic dermatitis, Dyshidrotic dermatitis , Follicular ichthyosis , Fox-Fordyce Disease , Hyperkeratosis, Hypohidrosis, Ichthyosis , Keratosis pilaris, Lichen sclerosis crinkled skin, Pompholyx , Psoriasis , Scleroderma , Tranebjaerg-Svejgaard syndrome
Drug Side Effect Adapalene, Afatinib, Amcinonide, Atropine, Benoxyl, Benzamycin- topical, Benzoyl Peroxide, Betamethasone, Claravis, Cleocin T topical lotion, Clobetasol, Clofazime, Cordran, Desonide, Dicyclomine, Diflorasone Diacetate, Diphenoxylate, Etretinate, Flucinolone, Fluorouracil, Gefitinib, Halcinonide, Halobetasol, Hydrocortisone, Hyoscyamine, Isotretinoin, Midodrine, Mometasone, Niacin, Panitumumab, Risperidone, Salicylic acid , Sertaconazole, Siltuximab, Sorafenib, Sunitinib, Tazarotene, Thalidomide, Tiagabine, Trentinoin, Triamcinolone
Ear Nose Throat

Autoimmune thyroid diseases

Endocrine Acromegaly , Cretinism , Diabetes , Hashimoto's Thyroiditis , Hypopituitarism, Hypothyroidism , Myxedema , Panhypopituitarism , Riedel syndrome , Sheehan Syndrome
Environmental Cold weather, Environmental allergen, Excessive swimming in chlorinated pool, Heatstroke, Low humidity, Sick building syndrome , Windy weather
Gastroenterologic Diarrhea
Genetic Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome , ADULT syndrome , Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy , Amelo-onycho-hypohidrotic syndrome , Ampola syndrome , Barakat syndrome , Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy , Chondrodysplasia punctata , Chromosome 1q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 22 trisomy , Cockayne syndrome , Dermatoleukodystrophy , Dermo-odontodysplasia , Ectodermal dysplasia, Familial hypopituitarism , Familial hypothyroidism , Fenton-Wilkinson-Toselano syndrome , Freire-Maia syndrome , Grix-Blankenship-Peterson syndrome , Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy, Type IV , Hunter-Carpenter-Macdonald syndrome , Johnston Aarons Schelley syndrome , Leprechaunism , Menkes Disease , Moynahan syndrome , Multiple system atrophy , Progeria, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome , Schindler disease, Stoll-Alembik-Finck syndrome , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome , Wrinkly skin syndrome
Hematologic Hodgkin's disease, Leukaemia
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease Fungal skin infection, HIV/AIDS , Dermatitis, Athlete's foot
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Johnston Aarons Schelley syndrome , Grix-Blankenship-Peterson syndrome , Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy , Amelo-onycho-hypohidrotic syndrome
Neurologic Spinal shock , Tranebjaerg-Svejgaard syndrome , Ampola syndrome , Cockayne syndrome , Dermatoleukodystrophy , Fenton-Wilkinson-Toselano syndrome , Grix-Blankenship-Peterson syndrome , Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy, Type IV , Hunter-Carpenter-Macdonald syndrome
Nutritional / Metabolic Anorexia nervosa , Dehydration , Malnutrition, Phenylketonuria , Uremia, Vitamin A deficiency , Vitamin b2 deficiency, Schindler disease, Menkes Disease
Obstetric/Gynecologic Pregnancy
Oncologic Hodgkin's disease, Leukaemia, Lymphoma, Malignancy
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity Chronic vitamin A toxicity
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Obesity hypoventilation syndrome
Renal / Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Dermatitis, Eczema, Granulomatous hypophysitis , Sjogren's syndrome , Atopic dermatitis, Psoriasis , Environmental allergen
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Aging, Excessive washing, Rubbing alcohol

Causes in Alphabetical order

References

See also



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