Drug allergy differential diagnosis

Jump to: navigation, search

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Charmaine Patel, M.D. [2]

Drug Allergy

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Drug allergy from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Drug allergy differential diagnosis On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Drug allergy differential diagnosis

All Images
X-rays
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images
MRI

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Drug allergy differential diagnosis

CDC on Drug allergy differential diagnosis

Drug allergy differential diagnosis in the news

Blogs on Drug allergy differential diagnosis

Directions to Hospitals Treating Drug allergy

Risk calculators and risk factors for Drug allergy differential diagnosis

Overview

True drug allergy needs to be differentiated from other reactions caused by drugs, such as pseudoallergic reactions and drug induced autoimmune like reactions. Drug allergy also needs to be differentiated from other conditions and reactions that present similarly to drug allergy.

Differentiating Drug Allergy from Other Diseases

Pseudoallergic Reactions

There are reactions called pseudoallergic reactions which, are in the category of adverse drug reactions. Although they mimic drug allergies, immunologic mechanisms have not been demonstrated as an underlying cause. There are also reactions called non-immunologic hypersensitivity reactions for which immunologic mechanisms of reactions have also not been demonstrated.

Some pseudoallergic reactions occur as a result of direct activation of immune cells and inflammatory cells, so the final steps of pathogenesis are the same and the clinical features are similar. Despite the similarities, the diagnosis, prognosis and future prevention are different.

Non-immunologic anaphylaxis can also occur. All types of anaphylaxis are life-threatening. The term “anaphylactoid reaction” often used for non-immunologic anaphylaxis can sometimes be interpreted as less severe, although this is not true. Some patients who show marked dermographism, have profound mast cell instability, which is thought associated with pseudoallergic reactions.

Some agents commonly implicated in pseudoallergic reactions are;

Auto-immune Like Syndromes Caused by Drugs

Lupus like syndromes can be caused by the following medications;

A pemphigus like syndrome can be caused by penicillamine

IgA bullous dermatitis can be caused by:

IgE Mediated Drug Allergies

Certain IgE mediated conditions need to be differentiated from IgE mediated drug allergies (angioedema, urticaria, anaphylaxis, bronschospasm) [1];

Non-IgE Mediated Drug Allergies

Certain non-IgE mediated conditions need to be differentiated from non-IgE mediated allergic reactions (exanthema, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, Stevens-johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN).

Differentiating drug allergy from other rashes

Drug allergy should be differentiated from other diseases causing papulosquamous or erythmatosquamous rash. The differentilas include:

Disease Rash Characteristics Signs and Symptoms Associated Conditions Images
Cutaneous T cell lymphoma/Mycosis fungoides[2]

courtesy of wikipedia.org

Pityriasis rosea[3]
  • Pink or salmon in color, which may be scaly; referred to as "herald patch"
  • Oval shape
  • Long axis oriented along the cleavage lines
  • Distributed on the trunk and proximal extremities
  • Squamous marginal collarette and a “fir-tree” or “Christmas tree” distribution on posterior trunk
  • Secondary to viral infections
  • Resolves spontaneously after 6-8 weeks

courtesy of https://commons.wikimedia.org

Pityriasis lichenoides chronica
  • Recurrent lesions are usually less evenly scattered than in cases of psoriasis
  • Brownish red or orange-brown in color
  • Lesions are capped by a single detachable, opaque, mica-like scale
  • Often leave hypopigmented macules

courtesy of http://www.regionalderm.com

Nummular dermatitis[6]
  • Lesions commonly relapse after occasional remission or may persist for long periods
  • Pruritus

courtesy of your-doctor.net dermatology atlas

Secondary syphilis[7]
  • Round, coppery, red colored lesions on palms and soles
  • Papules with collarette of scales

courtesy of wikipedia.org

Bowen’s disease[8]
  • Erythematous, small, scaly plaque, which enlarges erratically over time
  • Scale is usually yellow or white and it is easily detachable without any bleeding
  • Well-defined margins

courtesy of wikipedia.org

Exanthematous pustulosis[10]

commons.wikimedia.org

Hypertrophic lichen planus[12]

courtesy of wikipedia.org

Sneddon–Wilkinson disease[14]
  • Flaccid pustules that are often generalized and have a tendency to involve the flexural areas
  • Annular configuration

courtesy http://www.atlasdermatologico.com.br/disease.jsf?diseaseId=427

Small plaque parapsoriasis[18]
  • Erythematous plaques with fine scaly surface
  • May present with elongated, finger-like patches
  • Symmetrical distribution on the flanks
  • Known as digitate dermatosis
  • Lesions may be asymptomatic
  • May be mildly pruritic
  • May fade or disappear after sun exposure during the summer season, but typically recur during the winter

courtesy http://www.regionalderm.com

Intertrigo[20]

courtesy of cdc.gov

Langerhans cell histiocytosis[21]
  • Scaling and crusting of scalp

courtesy http://www.regionalderm.com

Tinea manuum/pedum/capitis[25]
  • Scaling, flaking, and sometimes blistering of the affected areas
  • Hair loss with a black dot on scalp in case of tinea capitis

courtesy regionalderm.com

Seborrheic dermatitis

courtesy of wikipedia.com

References

  1. Warrington R, Silviu-Dan F (2011). "Drug allergy". Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 7 Suppl 1: S10. doi:10.1186/1710-1492-7-S1-S10. PMC 3245433. PMID 22165859.
  2. "Mycosis Fungoides and the Sézary Syndrome Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version - National Cancer Institute".
  3. Mahajan K, Relhan V, Relhan AK, Garg VK (2016). "Pityriasis Rosea: An Update on Etiopathogenesis and Management of Difficult Aspects". Indian J Dermatol. 61 (4): 375–84. doi:10.4103/0019-5154.185699. PMC 4966395. PMID 27512182.
  4. Prantsidis A, Rigopoulos D, Papatheodorou G, Menounos P, Gregoriou S, Alexiou-Mousatou I, Katsambas A (2009). "Detection of human herpesvirus 8 in the skin of patients with pityriasis rosea". Acta Derm. Venereol. 89 (6): 604–6. doi:10.2340/00015555-0703. PMID 19997691.
  5. Smith KJ, Nelson A, Skelton H, Yeager J, Wagner KF (1997). "Pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta in HIV-1+ patients: a marker of early stage disease. The Military Medical Consortium for the Advancement of Retroviral Research (MMCARR)". Int. J. Dermatol. 36 (2): 104–9. PMID 9109005.
  6. Jiamton S, Tangjaturonrusamee C, Kulthanan K (2013). "Clinical features and aggravating factors in nummular eczema in Thais". Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol. 31 (1): 36–42. PMID 23517392.
  7. "STD Facts - Syphilis".
  8. Neagu TP, Ţigliş M, Botezatu D, Enache V, Cobilinschi CO, Vâlcea-Precup MS, GrinŢescu IM (2017). "Clinical, histological and therapeutic features of Bowen's disease". Rom J Morphol Embryol. 58 (1): 33–40. PMID 28523295.
  9. Murao K, Yoshioka R, Kubo Y (2014). "Human papillomavirus infection in Bowen disease: negative p53 expression, not p16(INK4a) overexpression, is correlated with human papillomavirus-associated Bowen disease". J. Dermatol. 41 (10): 878–84. doi:10.1111/1346-8138.12613. PMID 25201325.
  10. Szatkowski J, Schwartz RA (2015). "Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP): A review and update". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 73 (5): 843–8. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2015.07.017. PMID 26354880.
  11. Schmid S, Kuechler PC, Britschgi M, Steiner UC, Yawalkar N, Limat A, Baltensperger K, Braathen L, Pichler WJ (2002). "Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis: role of cytotoxic T cells in pustule formation". Am. J. Pathol. 161 (6): 2079–86. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)64486-0. PMC 1850901. PMID 12466124.
  12. Ankad BS, Beergouder SL (2016). "Hypertrophic lichen planus versus prurigo nodularis: a dermoscopic perspective". Dermatol Pract Concept. 6 (2): 9–15. doi:10.5826/dpc.0602a03. PMC 4866621. PMID 27222766.
  13. Shengyuan L, Songpo Y, Wen W, Wenjing T, Haitao Z, Binyou W (2009). "Hepatitis C virus and lichen planus: a reciprocal association determined by a meta-analysis". Arch Dermatol. 145 (9): 1040–7. doi:10.1001/archdermatol.2009.200. PMID 19770446.
  14. Lutz ME, Daoud MS, McEvoy MT, Gibson LE (1998). "Subcorneal pustular dermatosis: a clinical study of ten patients". Cutis. 61 (4): 203–8. PMID 9564592.
  15. Kasha EE, Epinette WW (1988). "Subcorneal pustular dermatosis (Sneddon-Wilkinson disease) in association with a monoclonal IgA gammopathy: a report and review of the literature". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 19 (5 Pt 1): 854–8. PMID 3056995.
  16. Delaporte E, Colombel JF, Nguyen-Mailfer C, Piette F, Cortot A, Bergoend H (1992). "Subcorneal pustular dermatosis in a patient with Crohn's disease". Acta Derm. Venereol. 72 (4): 301–2. PMID 1357895.
  17. Sauder MB, Glassman SJ (2013). "Palmoplantar subcorneal pustular dermatosis following adalimumab therapy for rheumatoid arthritis". Int. J. Dermatol. 52 (5): 624–8. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2012.05707.x. PMID 23489057.
  18. Lambert WC, Everett MA (1981). "The nosology of parapsoriasis". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 5 (4): 373–95. PMID 7026622.
  19. Väkevä L, Sarna S, Vaalasti A, Pukkala E, Kariniemi AL, Ranki A (2005). "A retrospective study of the probability of the evolution of parapsoriasis en plaques into mycosis fungoides". Acta Derm. Venereol. 85 (4): 318–23. doi:10.1080/00015550510030087. PMID 16191852.
  20. Janniger CK, Schwartz RA, Szepietowski JC, Reich A (2005). "Intertrigo and common secondary skin infections". Am Fam Physician. 72 (5): 833–8. PMID 16156342.
  21. Satter EK, High WA (2008). "Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a review of the current recommendations of the Histiocyte Society". Pediatr Dermatol. 25 (3): 291–5. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1470.2008.00669.x. PMID 18577030.
  22. Stull MA, Kransdorf MJ, Devaney KO (1992). "Langerhans cell histiocytosis of bone". Radiographics. 12 (4): 801–23. doi:10.1148/radiographics.12.4.1636041. PMID 1636041.
  23. Sholl LM, Hornick JL, Pinkus JL, Pinkus GS, Padera RF (2007). "Immunohistochemical analysis of langerin in langerhans cell histiocytosis and pulmonary inflammatory and infectious diseases". Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 31 (6): 947–52. doi:10.1097/01.pas.0000249443.82971.bb. PMID 17527085.
  24. Grois N, Pötschger U, Prosch H, Minkov M, Arico M, Braier J, Henter JI, Janka-Schaub G, Ladisch S, Ritter J, Steiner M, Unger E, Gadner H (2006). "Risk factors for diabetes insipidus in langerhans cell histiocytosis". Pediatr Blood Cancer. 46 (2): 228–33. doi:10.1002/pbc.20425. PMID 16047354.
  25. Al Hasan M, Fitzgerald SM, Saoudian M, Krishnaswamy G (2004). "Dermatology for the practicing allergist: Tinea pedis and its complications". Clin Mol Allergy. 2 (1): 5. doi:10.1186/1476-7961-2-5. PMC 419368. PMID 15050029.
  26. Schwartz RA, Janusz CA, Janniger CK (2006). "Seborrheic dermatitis: an overview". Am Fam Physician. 74 (1): 125–30. PMID 16848386.
  27. Misery L, Touboul S, Vinçot C, Dutray S, Rolland-Jacob G, Consoli SG, Farcet Y, Feton-Danou N, Cardinaud F, Callot V, De La Chapelle C, Pomey-Rey D, Consoli SM (2007). "[Stress and seborrheic dermatitis]". Ann Dermatol Venereol (in French). 134 (11): 833–7. PMID 18033062.




Linked-in.jpg