Dorzolamide

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Dorzolamide
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Gerald Chi

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Overview

Dorzolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is FDA approved for the {{{indicationType}}} of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. Common adverse reactions include taste alteration, hypersensitivity reaction, punctate keratitis, and visual discomfort.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Elevated Intraocular Pressure or Open-Angle Glaucoma
  • Dosing Information
  • One drop in the affected eye(s) three times daily

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Dorzolamide in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

Prophylaxis of Ocular Hypertension
  • Dosing Information
  • One drop 1–4 hours after anterior segment laser surgery

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

Elevated Intraocular Pressure or Open-Angle Glaucoma
  • Dosing Information
  • One drop in the affected eye(s) three times daily

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Dorzolamide in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Dorzolamide in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

  • Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product.

Warnings

Precautions
  • The management of patients with acute angle-closure glaucoma requires therapeutic interventions in addition to ocular hypotensive agents. Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution has not been studied in patients with acute angle-closure glaucoma.
  • Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution has not been studied in patients with severe renal impairment (CrCl < 30 mL/min). Because Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution and its metabolite are excreted predominantly by the kidney, Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution is not recommended in such patients.
  • Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution has not been studied in patients with hepatic impairment and should therefore be used with caution in such patients.
  • In clinical studies, local ocular adverse effects, primarily conjunctivitis and lid reactions, were reported with chronic administration of Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution. Many of these reactions had the clinical appearance and course of an allergic-type reaction that resolved upon discontinuation of drug therapy. If such reactions are observed, Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution should be discontinued and the patient evaluated before considering restarting the drug.
  • There is a potential for an additive effect on the known systemic effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibition in patients receiving an oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution. The concomitant administration of Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution and oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors is not recommended.
  • There have been reports of bacterial keratitis associated with the use of multiple-dose containers of topical ophthalmic products. These containers had been inadvertently contaminated by patients who, in most cases, had a concurrent corneal disease or a disruption of the ocular epithelial surface. Choroidal detachment has been reported with administration of aqueous suppressant therapy (e.g., dorzolamide) after filtration procedures.
  • There is an increased potential for developing corneal edema in patients with low endothelial cell counts. Precautions should be used when prescribing Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution to this group of patients.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

  • The most frequent adverse events associated with Dorzolamide Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution were ocular burning, stinging, or discomfort immediately following ocular administration (approximately one-third of patients). Approximately one-quarter of patients noted a bitter taste following administration. Superficial punctate keratitis occurred in 10-15% of patients and signs and symptoms of ocular allergic reaction in approximately 10%. Events occurring in approximately 1-5% of patients were conjunctivitis and lid reactions, blurred vision, eye redness, tearing, dryness, and photophobia.
  • In a 3-month, double-masked, active-treatment-controlled, multicenter study in pediatric patients, the adverse experience profile of Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution was comparable to that seen in adult patients.

Postmarketing Experience

  • The following adverse events have occurred either at low incidence (<1%) during clinical trials or have been reported during the use of Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution in clinical practice where these events were reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size and frequency of occurrence cannot be determined precisely. They have been chosen for inclusion based on factors such as seriousness, frequency of reporting, possible causal connection to Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution, or a combination of these factors: signs and symptoms of systemic allergic reactions including angioedema, bronchospasm, pruritus, and urticaria; Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis; dizziness, paresthesia; ocular pain, transient myopia, choroidal detachment following filtration surgery, eyelid crusting; dyspnea; contact dermatitis, epistaxis, dry mouth and throat irritation.

Drug Interactions

  • Although acid-base and electrolyte disturbances were not reported in the clinical trials with Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution, these disturbances have been reported with oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and have, in some instances, resulted in drug interactions (e.g., toxicity associated with high-dose salicylate therapy). Therefore, the potential for such drug interactions should be considered in patients receiving Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA):

  • Pregnancy Category C
  • Developmental toxicity studies with dorzolamide hydrochloride in rabbits at oral doses of ≥ 2.5 mg/kg/day (31 times the recommended human ophthalmic dose) revealed malformations of the vertebral bodies. These malformations occurred at doses that caused metabolic acidosis with decreased body weight gain in dams and decreased fetal weights. No treatment-related malformations were seen at 1.0 mg/kg/day (13 times the recommended human ophthalmic dose). There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.


Pregnancy Category (AUS):

  • Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category B3

There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Dorzolamide in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Dorzolamide during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • In a study of dorzolamide hydrochloride in lactating rats, decreases in body weight gain of 5 to 7% in offspring at an oral dose of 7.5 mg/kg/day (94 times the recommended human ophthalmic dose) were seen during lactation. A slight delay in postnatal development (incisor eruption, vaginal canalization and eye openings), secondary to lower fetal body weight, was noted.
  • It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

  • Safety and IOP-lowering effects of Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution have been demonstrated in pediatric patients in a 3-month, multicenter, double-masked, active-treatment-controlled trial.

Geriatic Use

  • No overall differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and younger patients.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Dorzolamide with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Dorzolamide with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Dorzolamide in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Dorzolamide in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Dorzolamide in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Dorzolamide in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

Ophthalmic

Monitoring

Serum electrolyte levels (particularly potassium) and blood pH levels should be monitored.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Dorzolamide in the drug label.

Overdosage

Acute Overdose

Signs and Symptoms

Electrolyte imbalance, development of an acidotic state, and possible central nervous system effects may occur. Serum electrolyte levels (particularly potassium) and blood pH levels should be monitored.

Chronic Overdose

There is limited information regarding Chronic Overdose of Dorzolamide in the drug label.

Pharmacology

Dorzolamide Structural Formulae.png
Dorzolamide-3D-balls.png
Dorzolamide
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(4S,6S)-2-ethylamino-4-methyl-5,5-dioxo-
6,7-dithiabicyclo[4.3.0]nona-8,10-diene-8-sulfonamide
Identifiers
CAS number 130693-82-2
120279-96-1
ATC code S01EC03
PubChem 5284549
DrugBank DB00869
Chemical data
Formula C10H16N2O4S3 
Mol. mass 324.443 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability ?
Protein binding ~33%
Metabolism ?
Half life 4 months
Excretion ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

C(US)

Legal status

-only(US)

Routes Topical (eye drops)

Mechanism of Action

  • Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is an enzyme found in many tissues of the body including the eye. It catalyzes the reversible reaction involving the hydration of carbon dioxide and the dehydration of carbonic acid. In humans, carbonic anhydrase exists as a number of isoenzymes, the most active being carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II), found primarily in red blood cells (RBCs), but also in other tissues. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in the ciliary processes of the eye decreases aqueous humor secretion, presumably by slowing the formation of bicarbonate ions with subsequent reduction in sodium and fluid transport. The result is a reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP).
  • Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution contains dorzolamide hydrochloride, an inhibitor of human carbonic anhydrase II. Following topical ocular administration, Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution reduces elevated intraocular pressure. Elevated intraocular pressure is a major risk factor in the pathogenesis of optic nerve damage and glaucomatous visual field loss.

Structure

  • Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor formulated for topical ophthalmic use.
  • Dorzolamide hydrochloride USP is described chemically as: (4S-trans)-4-(ethylamino)-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-2-sulfonamide 7,7-dioxide monohydrochloride. Dorzolamide hydrochloride USP is optically active. Its empirical formula is C10H16N2O4S3•HCl and its structural formula is:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Dorzolamide hydrochloride USP has a molecular weight of 360.9 and a melting point of about 264°C. It is a white to off-white, crystalline powder, which is soluble in water and slightly soluble in methanol and ethanol.
  • Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution is supplied as a sterile, isotonic, buffered, slightly viscous, aqueous solution of dorzolamide hydrochloride USP. The pH of the solution is approximately 5.6, and the osmolarity is 260-330 mOsM. Each mL of Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution 2% contains 20 mg dorzolamide (22.3 mg of dorzolamide hydrochloride USP).
  • Inactive ingredients are hydroxyethyl cellulose, mannitol, sodium citrate dihydrate, sodium hydroxide (to adjust pH) and water for injection. Benzalkonium chloride 0.0075% is added as a preservative.

Pharmacodynamics

  • When topically applied, dorzolamide reaches the systemic circulation. To assess the potential for systemic carbonic anhydrase inhibition following topical administration, drug and metabolite concentrations in RBCs and plasma and carbonic anhydrase inhibition in RBCs were measured.
  • Dorzolamide accumulates in RBCs during chronic dosing as a result of binding to CA-II. The parent drug forms a single N-desethyl metabolite, which inhibits CA-II less potently than the parent drug but also inhibits CA-I. The metabolite also accumulates in RBCs where it binds primarily to CA-I. Plasma concentrations of dorzolamide and metabolite are generally below the assay limit of quantitation (15nM).
  • Dorzolamide binds moderately to plasma proteins (approximately 33%). Dorzolamide is primarily excreted unchanged in the urine; the metabolite also is excreted in urine. After dosing is stopped, dorzolamide washes out of RBCs nonlinearly, resulting in a rapid decline of drug concentration initially, followed by a slower elimination phase with a half-life of about four months.

Pharmacokinetics

  • To simulate the systemic exposure after long-term topical ocular administration, dorzolamide was given orally to eight healthy subjects for up to 20 weeks. The oral dose of 2 mg b.i.d. closely approximates the amount of drug delivered by topical ocular administration of Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution 2% t.i.d. Steady state was reached within 8 weeks.
  • The inhibition of CA-II and total carbonic anhydrase activities was below the degree of inhibition anticipated to be necessary for a pharmacological effect on renal function and respiration in healthy individuals.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
  • In a two-year study of dorzolamide hydrochloride administered orally to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, urinary bladder papillomas were seen in male rats in the highest dosage group of 20 mg/kg/day (250 times the recommended human ophthalmic dose). Papillomas were not seen in rats given oral doses equivalent to approximately 12 times the recommended human ophthalmic dose. No treatment-related tumors were seen in a 21-month study in female and male mice given oral doses up to 75 mg/kg/day (~900 times the recommended human ophthalmic dose).
  • The increased incidence of urinary bladder papillomas seen in the high-dose male rats is a class effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in rats. Rats are particularly prone to developing papillomas in response to foreign bodies, compounds causing crystalluria, and diverse sodium salts.
  • No changes in bladder urothelium were seen in dogs given oral dorzolamide hydrochloride for one year at 2 mg/kg/day (25 times the recommended human ophthalmic dose) or monkeys dosed topically to the eye at 0.4 mg/kg/day (~5 times the recommended human ophthalmic dose) for one year.
  • The following tests for mutagenic potential were negative: (1) in vivo (mouse) cytogenetic assay; (2) in vitro chromosomal aberration assay; (3) alkaline elution assay; (4) V-79 assay; and (5) Ames test.
  • In reproduction studies of dorzolamide hydrochloride in rats, there were no adverse effects on the reproductive capacity of males or females at doses up to 188 or 94 times, respectively, the recommended human ophthalmic dose.

Clinical Studies

  • The efficacy of Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution was demonstrated in clinical studies in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension (baseline IOP ≥ 23 mmHg). The IOP-lowering effect of Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution was approximately 3 to 5 mmHg throughout the day and this was consistent in clinical studies of up to one year duration.
  • The efficacy of Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution when dosed less frequently than three times a day (alone or in combination with other products) has not been established.
  • In a one year clinical study, the effect of Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution 2% t.i.d. on the corneal endothelium was compared to that of betaxolol ophthalmic solution b.i.d. and timolol maleate ophthalmic solution 0.5% b.i.d. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in corneal endothelial cell counts or in corneal thickness measurements. There was a mean loss of approximately 4% in the endothelial cell counts for each group over the one year period.

How Supplied

  • Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution is a slightly opalescent, nearly colorless, slightly viscous solution.
  • Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution is supplied in a white low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bottle with a controlled drop tip and orange polypropylene cap in the following sizes:
5 mL in a 7.5 mL bottle NDC 24208-485-05
10 mL in a 10 mL bottle NDC 24208-485-10
  • Store Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F). Protect from light.

Storage

There is limited information regarding Dorzolamide Storage in the drug label.

Images

Drug Images

Package and Label Display Panel

Dorzolamide01.jpeg
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Dorzolamide02.jpeg
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Patient Counseling Information

  • Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution is a sulfonamide and although administered topically is absorbed systemically. Therefore the same types of adverse reactions that are attributable to sulfonamides may occur with topical administration. Patients should be advised that if serious or unusual reactions including severe skin reactions or signs of hypersensitivity occur, they should discontinue the use of the product.
  • Patients should be advised that if they develop any ocular reactions, particularly conjunctivitis and lid reactions, they should discontinue use and seek their physician's advice.
  • Patients should be instructed to avoid allowing the tip of the dispensing container to contact the eye or surrounding structures.
  • Patients should also be instructed that ocular solutions, if handled improperly or if the tip of the dispensing container contacts the eye or surrounding structures, can become contaminated by common bacteria known to cause ocular infections. Serious damage to the eye and subsequent loss of vision may result from using contaminated solutions.
  • Patients also should be advised that if they have ocular surgery or develop an intercurrent ocular condition (e.g., trauma or infection), they should immediately seek their physician's advice concerning the continued use of the present multidose container.
  • If more than one topical ophthalmic drug is being used, the drugs should be administered at least ten minutes apart.
  • Patients should be advised that Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution contains benzalkonium chloride which may be absorbed by soft contact lenses. Contact lenses should be removed prior to administration of the solution. Lenses may be reinserted 15 minutes following Dorzolamide HCl Ophthalmic Solution administration.

Precautions with Alcohol

Alcohol-Dorzolamide interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

Trusopt Ocumeter[1]

Look-Alike Drug Names

N/A[2]

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. "DORZOLAMIDE HCL SOLUTION/ DROPS [BAUSCH & LOMB INCORPORATED]".
  2. "http://www.ismp.org". External link in |title= (help)

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