Diarrhea causes

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Diarrhea Microchapters

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Overview

Patient Information

Classification

Acute Diarrhea
Chronic diarrhea

Differential Diagnosis

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [2]; M.Umer Tariq [3]; Mugilan Poongkunran M.B.B.S [4]

Overview

The principal cause of diarrhea stems from ingestion of unsafe drinking water (typically from admixture of raw sewage to water supplies); the occurrence is predominantly in lesser developed countries. The common causes of acute diarrhea are infection, allergy, food intolerance, foodborne illness and/or extreme excesses of vitamin C and/or magnesium and may be accompanied by abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Infectious diarrhea is most commonly caused by viral infections or bacterial toxins. Diarrhea can also be a principal symptom of more serious diseases, such as dysentery, Montezuma's Revenge, cholera, or botulism, and can also be indicative of a chronic syndrome such as Crohn's disease. Temporary diarrhea can also result from the ingestion of laxative medications or large quantities of certain foods like prunes with laxative properties. Though appendicitis patients do not generally have diarrhea, it is a common symptom of a ruptured appendix. It is also an effect of severe radiation sickness.

Causes

Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.


Common Causes


Causes According to Pathophysiology

Osmotic Diarrhea


Secretory Diarrhea


Motility Related Diarrhea


Causes According to Duration

Acute Diarrhea


Chronic Diarrhea


Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Portal vein thrombosis, superior mesenteric artery syndrome
Chemical / poisoning

Acrodynia, Amlodipine besylate and Atorvastatin calcium trihydrate, acute zinc toxicity, arsenic poisoning, Azacitidine , Cabozantinib carbamate insecticide poisoning, carbon monoxide poisoning, chlordane toxicity, chloroform toxicity, copper toxicity, diazinon poisoning, glutaraldehyde toxicity, heavy metal poisoning, lead poisoning, mercury poisoning, metal fume fever, naphthalene poisoning, organophosphate poisoning, paraquat toxicity, selenium toxicity, thallium toxicity

Dermatologic Acrodermatitis enteropathica, necrotizing fasciitis
Drug Side Effect

Ambenonium, 2C-B, 5-HT3 antagonist, 5-methoxy-diisopropyl tryptamine, abacavir, Acamprosate calcium, acarbose, acebutolol, Acetylcysteine, acyclovir, acitretin, aconitine, adefovir, afatinib, alatrofloxacin, albendazole, aldesleukin, Alemtuzumab, alendronate, aliskiren, allopurinol, alosetron, alpha-amanitin, alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, alprazolam, altretamine, ambenonium chloride, amifostine, amiloride, aminocaproic acid, aminophylline, amlexanox, amlodipine, Amlodipine besylate and Atorvastatin calcium trihydrate, ammonium lauryl sulfate, amoxicillin, amphetamine, amphotericin B, amprenavir, amitriptyline, anadenanthera peregrina, anagrelide, anakinra, anastrozole, Anidulafungin, anisindione, Apremilast, aprepitant, atazanavir, atenolol, atorvastatin, atovaquone, Atropine, auranofin, azithromycin, aztreonam, bacitracin, baclofen, barium nitrate, barium sulfate, Basiliximab, Benzphetamine, benazepril, bentiromide, bepridil, betaxolol, Bethanechol chloride, bevacizumab, bezafibrate, bicalutamide, biguanide, bisacodyl, bisoprolol, bortezomib, Bosutinib, bromocriptine, brompheniramine, bumetanide, buspirone, busulfan, candesartan, capecitabine, carbamazepine, carbidopa, carboplatin, carvedilol, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefamandole nafate, cefazolin, cefazolin, cefdinir, Cefditoren, cefepime, Cefixime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefotetan disodium, cefoxitin, cefpodoxime, Cefprozil, Ceftaroline fosamil, ceftazidime, Ceftibuten, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, cephalexin, cephradine, Ceritinib, cerivastatin, cetuximab, cevimeline, Chenodiol, chloral hydrate, chlorambucil, chlordiazepoxide, chlorodyne, chlorothiazide, chlorpheniramine, Chlorpropamide, chlorthalidone, cholestyramine, ciclosporin, cidofovir, cilostazol,, cinacalcet, cisapride, citalopram, cladribine, clamoxyquine, clarithromycin, clavulanic acid, clindamycin, clofarabine, clofibrate, clomipramine, clonazepam, clopidogrel, clorazepate, Conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene, colchicine, colistimethate, conjugated estrogens, Crizotinib, cyclophosphamide, cyproheptadine, cytarabine, dactinomycin, dalfopristin, dantrolene, daptomycin, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin, darunavir, dasatinib, daunorubicin, deferasirox, delavirdine, demeclocycline, Denileukin diftitox deracoxib, desoxyn, Dexchlorpheniramine, dextroamphetamine, dextromethorphan, diacerein, diazepam, diclofenac, dicloxacillin, didanosine, diflunisal, digitoxin, digoxin, diltiazem, dipyridamole, dirithromycin, disopyramide, docetaxel, dofetilide, dolasetron, donepezil, doripenem, doxorubicin, doxycycline, DTPA, duloxetine, Ecallantide, eculizumab, efavirenz, Elvitegravir, emtricitabine, Emtricitabine, Rilpivirine Hydrochloride, And Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate enalapril, endosulfan, enoxacin, entacapone, Epirubicin hydrochloride, eplerenone, epoetin alfa, ergotamine, erlotinib, Eliglustat, erythromycin, esomeprazole, estazolam, estradiol, ethacrynic acid, ethosuximide, etidronate, etodolac, etoposide, exemestane, exenatide, ezetimibe, famciclovir, famotidine, felbamate, Ferric oxyhydroxide, fexofenadine, floxuridine, foscarnet sodium, fluconazole, flucytosine, fludarabine, fluoride, fluorouracil, fluoxetine, flurazepam, Flurbiprofen, flutamide, fluticasone, fluvastatin, fluvoxamine, fosamprenavir, foscarnet, fosinopril, frovatriptan, fulvestrant, gabapentin, galantamine, ganciclovir, gatifloxacin, gefitinib, gemcitabine, gemeprost, gemfibrozil, glatiramer, Glipizide, Glyburide and Metformin, glycopyrrolate, granisetron, griseofulvin, guanethidine, guanfacine, hydralazine, hydrochlorothiazide, hydroxychloroquine, Hydroxyprogesterone caproate hydroxyurea, hyoscyamine, ibandronate, Ibritumomab Tiuxetan ibuprofen, idarubicin, Idelalisib, Idursulfase, imatinib, Imiglucerase infliximab, interferon alfacon-1 , Interferon alfa-2b , interferon beta-1b, irinotecan hydrochloride, iron supplements, isocarboxazid, isradipine, itraconazole, Ivacaftor, Ivermectin, Ixabepilone, ketoconazole, Ketorolac tromethamine, Lactulose, lamivudine, lamotrigine, lanreotide, lansoprazole, lanthanum,Lapatinib, leflunomide, lenalidomide, letrozole, leuprolide, levalbuterol, levetiracetam, Lenvatinib, levocarnitine, levodopa, levofloxacin, Linaclotide, Lincomycin Hydrochloride, linezolid, liothyronine sodium, lisinopril, lithium, lomefloxacin, lopinavir, loracarbef, loratadine, lorazepam, loxapine, magnesium hydroxide, mebendazole, mechlorethamine, meclofenamate, Mercaptopurine, mefenamic acid, mefloquine, megestrol, Meloxicam, meprobamate, mercaptopurine, meropenem, mesalazine, mesna, mesoridazine, Metirosine, metformin, methamphetamine, methenamine, methotrexate, methoxychlor, methsuximide, methyclothiazide, methylergonovine, methyprylon, metoclopramide, metolachlor, metolazone, metoprolol, metronidazole, Micafungin sodium, miconazole, mifepristone, miglitol, Miglustat, miltefosine minocycline, misoprostol, mitotane, mitoxantrone, moclobemide, modafinil, moexipril, moricizine, moxifloxacin, mycophenolate, nabumetone, nafcillin, naltrexone, naphthalene, naproxen and esomeprazole magnesium, natalizumab, natamycin, nateglinide, nelfinavir, nevirapine, Niacin/simvastatin, niclosamide, Nilotinib, Nintedanib, nizatidine, norfloxacin, nystatin, ofloxacin, Olsalazine, omalizumab, omeprazole, ondansetron, oseltamivir, oxaliplatin, oxazepam, oxcarbazepine, oxtriphylline, oxybutynin, Palbociclib, palivizumab, pancrelipase, Panitumumab, pantoprazole, Paromomycin sulfate, Paroxetine, Pasireotide, pegaspargase, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pemetrexed, pemoline, penbutolol, penicillin, pentamidine, pentostatin, pergolide, perindopril, perphenazine, Pertuzumab, phenazopyridine, Phenoxymethylpenicillin, phentermine, pilocarpine, pimecrolimus, pimozide, Pirfenidone, piroxicam, Plerixafor, Potassium iodide, plicamycin, polythiazide, posaconazole, Potassium chloride, Potassium citrate, pramipexole, pramlintide, prazepam, praziquantel, prazosin, procainamide, procarbazine, promethazine, propafenone, propranolol, permethrin, protriptyline, pseudoephedrine, Pyrantel pamoate, pyridostigmine, quinapril, quinidine, quinupristin, rabeprazole, Radium chloride, ramipril, Ramucirumab, ranitidine, rasagiline, Rasburicase, repaglinide, reserpine, retapamulin, ribavirin, rifabutin, rifampin, rilmenidine, riluzole, risedronate, risperidone, ritonavir, rituximab, rivastigmine, rizatriptan, Riluzole, roflumilast, Sacrosidase, salsalate, saquinavir mesylate, Saxagliptin hydrochloride and Metformin hydrochloride sargramostim, Secukinumab, selegiline, sevelamer, sildenafil, Siltuximab, simethicone, simvastatin, sirolimus, sitagliptin, sodium oxybate, sodium picosulfate, sodium polystyrene sulfonate, solanine, solifenacin, sorafenib, sotalol, sparfloxacin, spironolactone, stavudine, streptozocin, sulfadiazine, sulfasalazine, sulfisoxazole, sulfisoxazole, sulindac, sumatriptan, sunitinib, tacrine, Tacrolimus, tamsulosin, tedizolid, tegaserod, telbivudine, telithromycin, telmisartan, temozolomide, teniposide, tenofovir, terbinafine, teriparatide, tetraferric tricitrate decahydrate, Thallous Chloride Tl 201, theophylline, thiabendazole, thioguanine, thioridazine, thiothixene, thyroxine, ticlopidine, Tigecycline, tiludronate, tipranavir, tocopherol, tolcapone, Tolmetin, topiramate, topotecan, Trametinib dimethyl sulfoxide, trandolapril, tranylcypromine, trastuzumab, trazodone, treprostinil, Tretinoin, triamterene, triazolam, trifluoperazine, trihexyphenidyl, trimeprazine, trimethadione, trimethobenzamide, trimetrexate glucuronate, trimipramine, triprolidine, trovafloxacin, valacyclovir, valganciclovir, valproic acid, valsartan, verapamil, Vandetanib, Vilazodone, vinblastine, voriconazole, vorinostat, zanamivir, Zafirlukast, zidovudine, ziprasidone, zoledronic acid, zolmitriptan, Zoledronate

Ear Nose Throat Otitis media in children
Endocrine

Addison's disease, carcinoid syndrome, diabetes insipidus, diabetic neuropathy, glucagonoma, Graves disease, hyperthyroidism, hypoaldosteronism, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 neuroendocrine tumors, somatostatinoma, subacute thyroiditis

Environmental Abrus precatorious, agastache rugosa, alchornea castaneifolia, amanita phalloides poisoning, amnesic shellfish poisoning, azalea poisoning, bee stings, datura stramonium poisoning, endosulfan toxication, food poisoning, herbal extract overdose, honey intoxication, insect bite allergy, isomalt toxicity, lycorine, marine toxins, mushroom poisoning, narcissus pseudonarcissus, oleander poisoning, pesticide poisoning, phytohaemagglutinin poisoning, phytolacca americana toxicity, ricinus communis poisoning, snakebites, solanine poisoning
Gastroenterologic

Abdominal abscess, abdominal cancer, achlorhydria, acute appendicitis, acute gastritis, bile acid sequestrant, biliary atresia, biliary tract cancer, blind loop syndrome, caecitis, carcinoid syndrome, celiac disease, cholestatic jaundice, colitis, colonic inertia, colonic malakoplakia, colonic villous adenomata, colorectal cancer, colorectal polyps, Crohn's disease, diverticulitis, enteritis, enterocele, enterocolitis, food poisoning, fructose malabsorption, gastric dumping syndrome, gastrinoma, gastritis, gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, gastroenteritis, gastrointestinal amyloidosis, glucose-galactose malabsorption, gluten sensitivity, Habba syndrome ileitis, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal lymphangiectasis, intestinal pseudoobstruction, intususception, irritable bowel syndrome, ischemic colitis, lactose intolerance, listeriosis, malabsorption syndrome, malassimilation, Meckel diverticulitis, polyposis, proctitis, protein losing enteropathy, tropical sprue, ulcerative colitis, Whipple's disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Genetic

3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, abetalipoproteinaemia, Arakawa's syndrome II, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase deficiency, aspartylglycosaminuria, Baber's syndrome, Brown-symmers disease, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1B, congenital intrinsic factor deficiency, congenital short bowel syndrome, congenital toxoplasmosis, Cornelia de Lange syndrome 2, Cronkhite-Canada disease, dibasic aminoaciduria 2, Fabry's disease, familial amyloid polyneuropathy, galactosemia, Gardner's syndrome, Gilbert's syndrome, glutathione synthetase deficiency, Hartnup disease, hereditary angioedema, HNPCC, hyper IgM syndrome, hyperlipoproteinemia type I, inborn amino acid metabolism disorder, juvenile polyposis syndrome, lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia, malonic aciduria, malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency, mucopolysaccharidosis, neuroblastoma, neurofibromatosis, Sanfilippo syndrome, Slone's disease, sphingolipidosis, sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, Turcot syndrome, very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, Von Gierke disease, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked agammaglobulinaemia

Hematologic

Amyloidosis, C1 esterase inhibitor, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, hyper IgM syndrome, idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, megaloblastic anemia, myleofibrosis, neutropenia, porphyria Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked agammaglobulinaemia

Iatrogenic

Adjustable gastric band, colonoscopy, dumping syndrome, graft versus host disease, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, postileal resection, postvagotomy, radiation proctitis, rectal surgery, radiation sickness, short bowel syndrome, vaccination

Infectious Disease

Adenophorea, adenoviridae, aeromonas hydrophila, AIDS, amebiasis, ancylostoma duodenale, anguillulosis, anthrax, ascariasis, astrovirus, bacillary dysentery, bacillus cereus, bacterial toxin, balantidiasis, beef tapeworm, blastocystis hominis, borrelia anserina, botulism, campylobacter jejuni, candida, capillaria, cestoda, ciguatera poisoning, clostridium difficile, clostridium perfringens, clostridium sordellii, clostridium welchii, coccidia, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, cysticercosis, cytomegalovirus, dientamoeba fragilis, diphyllobothrium infection, dipylidium caninum infection, Ebola, echinococcosis, ehrlichiosis, entamoeba histolytica, escherichia coli, fasciolopsiasis, filariasis, flavivirus, fusarium venenatum, giardia lamblia, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, helminthiasis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, hepatitis E, hepatitis X, hookworm infection, isosporiasis, katayama fever, lassa fever, legionella pneumophila, legionnaires' disease, leptospirosis, lymphogranuloma venereum, malaria, marburg virus, measles, metagonimiasis, mycobacterium avium complex, norwalk gastroenteritis, opisthorchis infection, paragonimus infection, pelvic abscess, pseudomembranous colitis, psittacosis, Q fever, rhabditida, rotavirus, roundworm, salmonellosis, sarcocystis, schistosomiasis, secernentea, shigellosis, small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome, staphylococcal food poisoning, staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome, streptobacillus, streptococcal infections, strongyloides, tapeworms, trematoda, trichinella spiralis, trichinosis, trichuriasis, tularemia, typhoid fever, vancomycin, vibrio cholerae, vibrio mimicus, vibrio parahemolyticus, vibrio vulnificus, visceral leishmaniasis, Whipple disease, whipworm infection, yersinia enterocolitica

Musculoskeletal / Ortho No underlying causes
Neurologic Common migraine, neuroblastoma, Waterhouse-Friederichsen syndrome
Nutritional / Metabolic

Folate deficiency, food allergies, food intolerances, iron supplements, kwashiorkor, lactose intolerance, milk allergy, pellagra, pernicious anemia, protein losing enteropathy, sucrose intolerance, vitamin C toxicity, zinc deficiency

Obstetric/Gynecologic Childbirth, endometriosis, neonatal sepsis, ovarian cancer, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
Oncologic

Adrenal tumor, carcinoid syndrome, colorectal cancer, Ewing's sarcoma, Gardner's syndrome, gastric cancer, HNPCC, juvenile polyposis syndrome, Kaposi's sarcoma, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, neuroendocrine tumors, pancreatic adenoma, peritoneal mesothelioma, neuroendocrine tumors, ovarian cancer, small bowel lymphoma, somatostatinoma, thymus cancer, Vipoma,

Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity

Carbon monoxide toxicity, carnitine overuse, colchicine toxicity, digoxin toxicity, ergotism, heavy metal ingestion, mazindol

Psychiatric Anxiety-tension syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, dissociative disorder, panic attack
Pulmonary Anthrax, cystic fibrosis, diffuse systemic sclerosis, legionellosis
Renal / Electrolyte Acute kidney failure, chronic renal failure, hyperchloremia
Rheum / Immune / Allergy

Acquired angioedema, Amyloidosis, anaphylaxis, autoimmune adrenalitis, autoimmune enteropathy, autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome, autonomic neuropathy, C1 esterase inhibitor, chronic granulomatous disease, complement 5 deficiency, hereditary angioedema, hyper IgM syndrome, Kawasaki disease, Omenn syndrome, Reiter’s syndrome, Satoyoshi syndrome, severe combined immunodeficiency, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked agammaglobulinaemia

Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic Proctitis, Reiter’s syndrome
Miscellaneous

Alcohol intoxication, alcohol withdrawal, anopsology

Causes in Alphabetical Order

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References


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