Developmental biology

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"Views of a Fetus in the Womb", Leonardo da Vinci, ca. 1510-1512. The subject of prenatal development is a major subset of developmental biology.

Developmental biology is the study of the process by which organisms grow and develop. Modern developmental biology studies the genetic control of cell growth, differentiation and "morphogenesis," which is the process that gives rise to tissues, organs and anatomy.

Related fields of study

Embryology is a subfield, the study of organisms between the one-cell stage (generally, the zygote) and the end of the embryonic stage, which is not necessarily the beginning of a free living organism. Embryology was originally a more descriptive science until the 20th century. Embryology and developmental biology today deal with the various steps necessary for the correct and complete formation of the body of a living organism.

The related field of evolutionary developmental biology was formed largely in the 1990s and is a synthesis of findings from molecular developmental biology and evolutionary biology which considers the diversity of organismal form in an evolutionary context.

Perspectives

The findings of developmental biology can help to understand developmental malfunctions such as chromosomal aberrations, for example, Down syndrome. An understanding of the specialization of cells during embryogenesis may yield information on how to specialize stem cells to specific tissues and organs, which could lead to the specific cloning of organs for medical purposes. Another biologically important process that occurs during development is apoptosis - programmed cell death or "suicide". For this reason, many developmental models are used to elucidate the physiology and molecular basis of this cellular process. Similarly, a deeper understanding of developmental biology can foster greater progress in the treatment of congenital disorders and diseases, e.g. studying human sex determination can lead to treatment for disorders such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Concepts in developmental biology

allantois, amnion, blastocyst, blastomere, blastula, blastulation, chorion, chrysalis, cleavage, differentiation, embryo, embryogenesis, embryogeny, embryology, extra-embryonic membrane, fetus, gastrula, gastrulation, germ layer, germ plasm, germination, induction, juvenile, larva, maternal effect, metamorphosis, genome, morphogenesis, morula, neoteny, neural development, nymph, ontogeny, oosperm, ovism, paedogenesis, pangenesis, phylogeny, primordium, pupa, rudiment, seed, self-organization, teratology, zygote

Developmental model organisms

Often used model organisms in developmental biology include the following:

Developmental systems biology

Computer simulation of multicellular development is a research methodology to understand the function of the very complex processes involved in the development of organisms. This includes simulation of cell signaling, multicell interactions and regulatory genomic networks in development of multicellular structures and processes (see Biological Physics of the Developing Embryo). Minimal genomes for minimal multicellular organisms may pave the way to understand such complex processes in vivo.

See also

Sources

ar:علم الأحياء التنموي ca:Biologia del desenvolupament de:Entwicklungsbiologie id:Biologi perkembangan it:Biologia dello sviluppo he:ביולוגיה התפתחותית lb:Entwécklungsbiologie hu:Fejlődéstan mk:Развојна биологија nl:Ontwikkelingsbiologie simple:Developmental biology sl:razvojna biologija fi:Kehitysbiologia sv:utvecklingsbiologi uk:Біологія розвитку


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