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Cytoarchitecture is the cellular composition of a bodily structure.

In biology, it refers to the arrangement of cells in a tissue, and in neuroscience it refers specifically to the arrangement of neuron somas (cell bodies) in the cerebral cortex. In neuroscience, staining for dark matter in the brain would highlight its cytoarchitecture, since dark matter is in part defined by high concentrations of cell bodies (as opposed to white matter which refers to areas with high concentrations of myelin and thus neuronal axons).