Constipation classification

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Eiman Ghaffarpasand, M.D. [2]

Overview

Constipation may be classified according to etiology into seven subtypes include gastrointestinal, neurologic, metabolic, endocrine, psychiatric, drug-induced, and idiopathic.

Classification

Constipation may be classified according to etiology into five subtypes:[1][2]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Constipation
classification
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Etiology
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Neurologic
 
Metabolic
 
Endocrine
 
 
 
 
Gastrointestinal
 
 
 
 
Psychiatric
 
Drugs
 
Idiopathic
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Obstruction
 
Aganglionosis
 
Idiopathic megacolon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hirschprung disease
 
Chagas disease
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Multiple sclerosis
Parkinson's disease
Spinal cord injury
 
Hypercalcemia
Hypomagnesemia
Porphyria
Hypokalemia
 
Hypothyroidism
Diabetes mellitus
Panhypopituitarism
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Depression
Eating disorder
 
Analgesics
Anticholinergics
Cation-containing agents
Neuron targeting agents
 
• Normal colonic transit
• Slow colonic transit
• Dyssynergic defecation

References

  1. Hinton JM, Lennard-Jones JE (1968). "Constipation: definition and classification". Postgrad Med J. 44 (515): 720–3. PMC 2466679. PMID 5705375.
  2. Gray JR (2011). "What is chronic constipation? Definition and diagnosis". Can J Gastroenterol. 25 Suppl B: 7B–10B. PMC 3206562. PMID 22114751.



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