Congestive heart failure ACE inhibitors

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Medical Therapy:

Summary
Acute Pharmacotherapy
Chronic Pharmacotherapy in HFpEF
Chronic Pharmacotherapy in HFrEF
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ACE Inhibitors
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Biventricular Pacing or Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT)
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ACC/AHA Guideline Recommendations

Initial and Serial Evaluation of the HF Patient
Hospitalized Patient
Patients With a Prior MI
Sudden Cardiac Death Prevention
Surgical/Percutaneous/Transcather Interventional Treatments of HF
Patients at high risk for developing heart failure (Stage A)
Patients with cardiac structural abnormalities or remodeling who have not developed heart failure symptoms (Stage B)
Patients with current or prior symptoms of heart failure (Stage C)
Patients with refractory end-stage heart failure (Stage D)
Coordinating Care for Patients With Chronic HF
Quality Metrics/Performance Measures

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Congestive heart failure end-of-life considerations

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Patients who have concomitant disorders
Obstructive Sleep Apnea in the Patient with CHF
NSTEMI with Heart Failure and Cardiogenic Shock

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Editor(s)-In-Chief: James Chang, M.D., Cardiovascular Division Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston MA, Harvard Medical School [1] and C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [2], Cardiovascular Division Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston MA, Harvard Medical School; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan, M.B.B.S. [3];Seyedmahdi Pahlavani, M.D. [4]

Overview

The Collaborative Group on ACE Inhibitor Trials demonstrated significant reduction in total mortality and hospitalization with the administration of ACEIs that was consistent among wide range of patients.[1]

ACE Inhibitors

Indications for ACE Inhibitors Use

1. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is ≤ 40%

or

2. There is a prior history of myocardial infarction (MI)

Background

Dosing

  • ACE-I or ARB therapy should be initiated at low dosage such as 12.5 mg tid of captopril, 2.5 mg bid of enalapril[2][3], or 2.5 mg daily lisinopril.
  • Every 4 to 6 weeks the dose is gradually uptitrated, as tolerated, toward target dosages of 20-40 mg daily for lisinopril, 10-20 mg twice daily for enalapril maleate, and 50-100 mg three times a day for captopril, or to the maximum tolerated dosage.
  • ACE inhibitors are rarely adequate for the treatment of congestion without the use of diuretics.

Complications

2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA Focused Update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Patients Presenting With Heart Failure (DO NOT EDIT) [6][7]

Class I

1. The clinical strategy of inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system with ACE inhibitors (Level of Evidence: A), OR ARBs (Level of Evidence: A), OR ARNI (Level of Evidence: B-R) in conjunction with evidence-based beta blockers, and aldosterone antagonists in selected patients, is recommended for patients with chronic HFrEF to reduce morbidity and mortality. (Class I, Level of Evidence: A)

2. The use of ACE inhibitors is beneficial for patients with prior or current symptoms of chronic HFrEF to reduce morbidity and mortality. (Class I, Level of Evidence: A)

Class III (No Benefit)
"1. Routine combined use of an ACE inhibitor, ARB, and aldosterone antagonist is not recommended for patients with current or prior symptoms of heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). (Level of Evidence: C) "

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References

  1. Garg R, Yusuf S (1995). "Overview of randomized trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. Collaborative Group on ACE Inhibitor Trials". JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association. 273 (18): 1450–6. PMID 7654275. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  2. "Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure. The SOLVD Investigators". The New England Journal of Medicine. 325 (5): 293–302. 1991. doi:10.1056/NEJM199108013250501. PMID 2057034. Retrieved 2012-04-03. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. "Effects of enalapril on mortality in severe congestive heart failure. Results of the Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study (CONSENSUS). The CONSENSUS Trial Study Group". The New England Journal of Medicine. 316 (23): 1429–35. 1987. doi:10.1056/NEJM198706043162301. PMID 2883575. Retrieved 2012-04-03. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  4. Pfeffer MA, Swedberg K, Granger CB, Held P, McMurray JJ, Michelson EL, Olofsson B, Ostergren J, Yusuf S, Pocock S (2003). "Effects of candesartan on mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic heart failure: the CHARM-Overall programme". Lancet. 362 (9386): 759–66. PMID 13678868. Retrieved 2012-04-03. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  5. Young JB, Dunlap ME, Pfeffer MA, Probstfield JL, Cohen-Solal A, Dietz R, Granger CB, Hradec J, Kuch J, McKelvie RS, McMurray JJ, Michelson EL, Olofsson B, Ostergren J, Held P, Solomon SD, Yusuf S, Swedberg K (2004). "Mortality and morbidity reduction with Candesartan in patients with chronic heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction: results of the CHARM low-left ventricular ejection fraction trials". Circulation. 110 (17): 2618–26. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000146819.43235.A9. PMID 15492298. Retrieved 2012-04-03. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  6. 6.0 6.1 Hunt SA, Abraham WT, Chin MH, Feldman AM, Francis GS, Ganiats TG, Jessup M, Konstam MA, Mancini DM, Michl K, Oates JA, Rahko PS, Silver MA, Stevenson LW, Yancy CW, Antman EM, Smith SC Jr, Adams CD, Anderson JL, Faxon DP, Fuster V, Halperin JL, Hiratzka LF, Jacobs AK, Nishimura R, Ornato JP, Page RL, Riegel B; American College of Cardiology; American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines; American College of Chest Physicians; International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation; Heart Rhythm Society. ACC/AHA 2005 Guideline Update for the Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Heart Failure in the Adult: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Update the 2001 Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Heart Failure): developed in collaboration with the American College of Chest Physicians and the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation. 2005 Sep 20; 112(12): e154-235. Epub 2005 Sep 13. PMID 16160202
  7. 7.0 7.1 Jessup M, Abraham WT, Casey DE, Feldman AM, Francis GS, Ganiats TG et al. (2009) 2009 focused update: ACCF/AHA Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Heart Failure in Adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines: developed in collaboration with the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Circulation 119 (14):1977-2016. DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192064 PMID: 19324967



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