Compiled template statements

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Usama Talib, BSc, MD [2]

Overview

Given below are the compiled preferred template statements for each micro chapter page.

Historical Perspective

IF the circumstances under which the disease was discovered are known:

  • [Disease name] was first discovered by [name of scientist], a [nationality + occupation], in [year]/during/following [event].

Other sentences may describe the development of diagnostic techniques or therapies to treat the disease, outbreaks or epidemics throughout history, discoveries relating to the pathogenesis or causes of the disease, etc. A non-comprehensive list of additional template statements is below.

  • In [year], [diagnostic test/therapy] was developed by [scientist] to treat/diagnose [disease name].
  • There have been several outbreaks of [disease name], which are summarized below. 
  • The association between [important risk factor/cause] and [disease name] was made in/during [year/event].
  • In [year], [scientist] was the first to discover the association between [risk factor] and the development of [disease name].
  • In [year], [gene] mutations were first implicated in the pathogenesis of [disease name].
  • The following are a few famous cases of disease name.

For more instructions about how to edit the historical perspective page, click here.

To copy the template before starting to edit the page, click here.

Classification

IF there is no classification system for the disease:

  • There is no established system for the classification of [disease name].

IF there is a classification system:

  • With multiple subgroups:
    • [Disease name] may be classified according to [classification method] into [number] subtypes/groups: [group1], [group2], [group3], and [group4].
  • With multiple established classification methods:
    • [Disease name] may be classified into [large number > 6] subtypes based on [classification method 1], [classification method 2], and [classification method 3].
    • [Disease name] may be classified into several subtypes based on [classification method 1], [classification method 2], and [classification method 3].
  • If the disease is only classified as acute or chronic:
    • Based on the duration of symptoms, [disease name] may be classified as either acute or chronic.

IF the disease is classified based on malignancy:

  • If the staging system involves specific and characteristic findings and features:
    • According to the [staging system + reference], there are [number] stages of [malignancy name] based on the [finding1], [finding2], and [finding3]. Each stage is assigned a [letter/number1] and a [letter/number2] that designate the [feature1] and [feature2].
  • If the staging system does not conform to the previous template statement, use the statement below and then elaborate in your own words.
    • The staging of [malignancy name] is based on the [staging system].
  • If there is no staging system for the malignant disease:
    • There is no established system for the staging of [malignancy name].

For more instructions about how to edit the classification page, click here.

To copy the template before starting to edit the page, click here.

Pathophysiology

 IF the pathogenesis of the disease is unclear:

  • The exact pathogenesis of [disease name] is not fully understood.
  • It is thought that [disease name] is the result of / is mediated by / is produced by / is caused by either [hypothesis 1], [hypothesis 2], or [hypothesis 3].

IF the disease is infectious…

  • …and the route of transmission is known:
    • [Pathogen name] is usually transmitted via the [transmission route] route to the human host.
    • Following transmission/ingestion, the [pathogen] uses the [entry site] to invade the [cell name] cell.

IF the disease has a known genetic component:

  • [Disease name] is transmitted in [mode of genetic transmission] pattern.
  • Genes involved in the pathogenesis of [disease name] include [gene1], [gene2], and [gene3].

IF certain pathology findings are characteristic of the disease:

  • On gross pathology, [feature1], [feature2], and [feature3] are characteristic findings of [disease name].
  • On microscopic histopathological analysis, [feature1], [feature2], and [feature3] are characteristic findings of [disease name].

Other relevant information may include the action of the pathogen on a molecular level, the body’s response, whether or not mutations play a role in the disease development, whether the pathophysiology of the disease is different among subgroups of the disease, etc. Additional template sentences are listed below. Due to the highly variable nature of pathophysiology among various diseases, this list is not comprehensive.

  • [Disease or malignancy name] arises from [cell name]s, which are [cell type] cells that are normally involved in [function of cells].
  • The development of [disease name] is the result of multiple genetic mutations.
  • The progression to [disease name] usually involves the [molecular pathway].
  • The pathophysiology of [disease/malignancy] depends on the histological subtype. 

Causes

IF there are life-threatening causes of the disease, list those first, followed by common causes, then less common causes.

  • Life-threatening causes of [symptom/manifestation] include [cause1], [cause2], and [cause3].
  • [Cause] is a life-threatening cause of [disease].

IF there are no life-threatening causes of the disease, begin with common causes. If no distinctions can be made between common and less-common causes, list all causes together.

  • On the overview page, use a full sentence:
    • Disease name] may be caused by [cause1], [cause2], or [cause3].
    • Common causes of [disease] include [cause1], [cause2], and [cause3].
    • The most common cause of [disease name] is [cause 1]. Less common causes of [disease name] include [cause 2], [cause 3], and [cause 4].
  • On the Causes microchapter, use bullet points:
    • [Disease name] may be caused by:
      • [cause1]
      • [cause2]
      • [cause3]

IF the disease is caused by one specific pathogen:

  • [Disease name] is caused by an infection with [pathogen name].
  • [Pathogen name] infection is caused by [pathogen name].

IF the disease arises from a genetic mutation:

  • [Disease name] is caused by a mutation in the [gene name] gene.

IF genetics play an unspecified role in the development of the disease:

IF the cause of the disease is unknown:

  • The cause of [disease name] has not been identified. To review risk factors for the development of [disease name], click here.


Differentiating X from other Diseases

  • [Disease name] must be differentiated from other diseases that cause [clinical feature 1], [clinical feature 2], and [clinical feature 3], such as [differential dx1], [differential dx2], and [differential dx3].
  • [Disease name] must be differentiated from [[differential dx1], [differential dx2], and [differential dx3].

IF the disease has multiple subtypes and the subtypes do not have the same differential diagnoses:

  • As [disease name] manifests in a variety of clinical forms, differentiation must be established in accordance with the particular subtype. [Subtype name 1] must be differentiated from other diseases that cause [clinical feature 1], such as [differential dx1] and [differential dx2]. In contrast, [subtype name 2] must be differentiated from other diseases that cause [clinical feature 2], such as [differential dx3] and [differential dx4].


Epidemiology and Demographics

IF the incidence/prevalence of the disease is known:

  • The incidence/prevalence of [disease name] is approximately [number range] per 100,000 individuals worldwide.
  • In [year], the incidence/prevalence of [disease name] was estimated to be [number range] cases per 100,000 individuals worldwide.
  • The prevalence of [disease/malignancy] is estimated to be [number] cases annually.

IF the case-fatality rate is also known, you may use either of the following template statements:

  • In [year], the incidence of [disease name] is approximately [number range] per 100,000 individuals with a case-fatality rate of [number range]%.
  • The case-fatality rate of [disease name] is approximately [number range].

IF details about prevalence according to age/race/sex are known:

  • Age:
    • Patients of all age groups may develop [disease name].
    • The incidence of [disease name] increases with age; the median age at diagnosis is [#] years.
    • [Disease name] commonly affects individuals younger than/older than [number of years] years of age.
  • Race:
    • There is no racial predilection to [disease name].
    • [Disease name] usually affects individuals of the [race 1] race. [Race 2] individuals are less likely to develop [disease name].
  • Sex:
    • [Disease name] affects men and women equally.
    • [Gender 1] are more commonly affected by [disease name] than [gender 2]. The [gender 1] to [gender 2] ratio is approximately [number > 1] to 1.

IF details about prevalence by region are known:

  • The majority of [disease name] cases are reported in [geographical region].

If additional details are known about the patient population in which the disease is typically diagnosed, they may be included here. Supplementary template statements include:

  • [Disease name] is a common/rare disease that tends to affect [patient population 1] and [patient population 2].
  • [Chronic disease name] is usually first diagnosed among [age group].
  • [Acute disease name] commonly affects [age group].

Risk Factors

IF one particular risk factor is especially strongly associated with disease development:

  • The most potent risk factor in the development of [disease name] is [risk factor 1]. Other risk factors include [risk factor 2], [risk factor 3], and [risk factor 4].

IF all risk factors contribute equally to disease development:

  • On the overview page, use a full sentence:
    • Common risk factors in the development of [disease name] include [risk factor 1], [risk factor 2], [risk factor 3], and [risk factor 4].
  • On the Risk Factors microchapter, use bullet points:
    • Common risk factors in the development of [disease name] include:
      • [risk factor 1]
      • [risk factor 2]
      • [risk factor 3]

IF there are no known risk factors for the development of the disease:

  • There are no established risk factors for [disease name].

You may also wish to clarify the nature of the risk factors with a statement similar to the following:

  • Common risk factors in the development of [disease name] may be occupational, environmental, genetic, and viral.


Screening

IF no guidelines exist to indicate that screening is beneficial:

  • There is insufficient evidence to recommend routine screening for [disease/malignancy].

IF screening is specifically not recommended:

  • According to the [guideline name], screening for [disease name] is not recommended.

IF screening is recommended by a reputable source:

  • According to the [guideline name], screening for [disease name] by [test 1] is recommended every [duration] among patients with [condition 1], [condition 2], and [condition 3].


Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis

  • If left untreated, [#]% of patients with [disease name] may progress to develop [manifestation 1], [manifestation 2], and [manifestation 3].
  • Common complications of [disease name] include [complication 1], [complication 2], and [complication 3].
  • Prognosis is generally excellent/good/poor, and the 1/5/10-year mortality/survival rate of patients with [disease name] is approximately [#]%.
  • Depending on the extent of the [tumor/disease progression/etc.] at the time of diagnosis, the prognosis may vary. However, the prognosis is generally regarded as poor/good/excellent.

 

Additional Sentences

  • The presence of [characteristic of disease] is associated with a particularly [good/poor] prognosis among patients with [disease/malignancy].
  • [Subtype of disease/malignancy] is associated with the most favorable prognosis.
  • The prognosis varies with the [characteristic] of tumor; [subtype of disease/malignancy] have the most favorable prognosis.


Diagnostic Criteria

IF there are clear, established diagnostic criteria:

  • The diagnosis of [disease name] is made when at least [number] of the following [number] diagnostic criteria are met: [criterion 1], [criterion 2], [criterion 3], and [criterion 4].
  • The diagnosis of [disease name] is based on the [criteria name] criteria, which include [criterion 1], [criterion 2], and [criterion 3].
  • The diagnosis of [disease name] is based on the [definition name] definition, which includes [criterion 1], [criterion 2], and [criterion 3].

IF there are no established diagnostic criteria: 

  • There are no established criteria for the diagnosis of [disease name].


History and Symptoms

IF there is one particularly identifiable symptom of the disease:

  • The hallmark of [disease name] is [finding]. A positive history of [finding 1] and [finding 2] is suggestive of [disease name]. The most common symptoms of [disease name] include [symptom 1], [symptom 2], and [symptom 3].

IF there are many equally recognizable symptoms of the disease:

  • Symptoms of [disease name] include [symptom 1], [symptom 2], and [symptom 3]. 

IF it makes sense to distinguish between common and less-common symptoms:

  • On the overview page, use a full sentence:
    • Common symptoms of [disease] include [symptom 1], [symptom 2], and [symptom 3].
    • Less common symptoms of [disease name] include [symptom 1], [symptom 2], and [symptom 3].
  • On the History and Symptoms microchapter, use bullet points:
    • Common symptoms of [disease] include:
      • [symptom 1]
      • [symptom 2]
      • [symptom 3]

IF symptoms are usually not present:

  • The majority of patients with [disease name] are asymptomatic.


Physical Examination

  • Patients with [disease name] usually appear [general appearance]. Physical examination of patients with [disease name] is usually remarkable for [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].
  • Common physical examination findings of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].
  • The presence of [finding(s)] on physical examination is diagnostic of [disease name].
  • The presence of [finding(s)] on physical examination is highly suggestive of [disease name].

Laboratory Findings

IF there are diagnostic laboratory findings associated with the disease:

  • An elevated/reduced concentration of serum/blood/urinary/CSF/other [lab test] is diagnostic of [disease name].
  • Laboratory findings consistent with the diagnosis of [disease name] include [abnormal test 1], [abnormal test 2], and [abnormal test 3].
  • [Test] is usually normal among patients with [disease name].
  • Some patients with [disease name] may have elevated/reduced concentration of [test], which is usually suggestive of [progression/complication].

IF there are no diagnostic laboratory findings:

  • There are no diagnostic laboratory findings associated with [disease name].


Electrocardiogram

IF there are no ECG findings associated with the disease:

  • There are no ECG findings associated with [disease name].

IF an ECG is useful for diagnosis:

  • An ECG may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings on an ECG suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].


X Ray

IF there are no x-ray findings associated with the disease:

  • There are no x-ray findings associated with [disease name].

IF an x-ray is useful for diagnosis:

  • An x-ray may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings on an x-ray suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

IF an x-ray is not helpful for diagnosis, but may be helpful in identifying complications of the disease:

  • There are no x-ray findings associated with [disease name]. However, an x-ray may be helpful in the diagnosis of complications of [disease name], which include [complication 1], [complication 2], and [complication 3].


CT

IF there are no CT findings associated with the disease:

  • There are no CT scan findings associated with [disease name].

IF a CT scan is useful for diagnosis:

  • [Location] CT scan may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings on CT scan suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

IF a CT scan is not helpful for diagnosis, but may be helpful in identifying complications of the disease:

  • There are no CT scan findings associated with [disease name]. However, a CT scan may be helpful in the diagnosis of complications of [disease name], which include [complication 1], [complication 2], and [complication 3].


MRI

IF there are no MRI findings associated with the disease:

  • There are no MRI findings associated with [disease name].

IF an MRI is useful for diagnosis:

  • An MRI may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings on an MRI suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

IF an MRI is not helpful for diagnosis, but may be helpful in identifying complications of the disease:

  • There are no MRI findings associated with [disease name]. However, an MRI may be helpful in the diagnosis of complications of [disease name], which include [complication 1], [complication 2], and [complication 3].


Echocardiography or Ultrasound

IF there are no echocardiography/ultrasound findings associated with the disease:

  • There are no echocardiography/ultrasound findings associated with [disease name].

IF echocardiography/ultrasound is useful for diagnosis:

  • Echocardiography/ultrasound may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings on an echocardiography/ultrasound suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

IF echocardiography/ultrasound is not helpful for diagnosis, but may be helpful in identifying complications of the disease:

  • There are no echocardiography/ultrasound findings associated with [disease name]. However, an echocardiography/ultrasound may be helpful in the diagnosis of complications of [disease name], which include [complication 1], [complication 2], and [complication 3].


Other Imaging Findings

IF there are no other imaging findings associated with the disease:

  • There are no other imaging findings associated with [disease name].

IF other imaging findings may be useful for diagnosis:

  • [Imaging modality] may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings on an [imaging modality] suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].


Other Diagnostic Studies

IF there are no other diagnostic studies associated with the disease:

  • There are no other diagnostic studies associated with [disease name].

IF other diagnostic studies may be useful for diagnosis:

  • [Diagnostic study] may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].
  • Other diagnostic studies for [disease name] include [diagnostic study 1], which demonstrates [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3], and [diagnostic study 2], which demonstrates [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].


Treatment

Medical Therapy

IF there is no known treatment for the disease:

  • There is no treatment for [disease name]; the mainstay of therapy is supportive care.
  • Supportive therapy for [disease name] includes [therapy 1], [therapy 2], and [therapy 3].
  • The majority of cases of [disease name] are self-limited and require only supportive care.

IF the disease constitutes a medical emergency: 

  • [Disease name] is a medical emergency and requires prompt treatment.

IF there is a specific preferred modality of medical therapy:

  • The mainstay of treatment for [disease name] is [therapy].

 

Additional Sentences

  • The optimal therapy for [malignancy name] depends on the stage at diagnosis.
  • [Therapy] is recommended among all patients who develop [disease name].
  • Pharmacologic medical therapy is recommended among patients with [disease subclass 1], [disease subclass 2], and [disease subclass 3].
  • Pharmacologic medical therapies for [disease name] include (either) [therapy 1], [therapy 2], and/or [therapy 3].
  • Empiric therapy for [disease name] depends on [disease factor 1] and [disease factor 2].
  • Patients with [disease subclass 1] are treated with [therapy 1], whereas patients with [disease subclass 2] are treated with [therapy 2].


Surgery

IF surgery is not indicated:

  • Surgical intervention is not recommended for the management of [disease name].

IF surgery is only recommended in certain patients with the disease:

  • Surgery is not the first-line treatment option for patients with [disease name]. Surgery is usually reserved for patients with either [indication 1], [indication 2], and [indication 3]
  • The mainstay of treatment for [disease name] is medical therapy. Surgery is usually reserved for patients with either [indication 1], [indication 2], and/or [indication 3].
  • The feasibility of surgery depends on the stage of [malignancy] at diagnosis.

IF surgery is the primary treatment modality:

  • Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for [disease or malignancy].


Primary Prevention

IF there are no strategies for primary prevention:

  • There are no established measures for the primary prevention of [disease name].
  • There are no available vaccines against [disease name].

 IF there are primary prevention strategies:

  • Effective measures for the primary prevention of [disease name] include [measure1], [measure2], and [measure3].
  • [Vaccine name] vaccine is recommended for [patient population] to prevent [disease name]. Other primary prevention strategies include [strategy 1], [strategy 2], and [strategy 3].


Secondary Prevention

IF there are no means of secondary prevention:

  • There are no established measures for the secondary prevention of [disease name].

IF there are secondary prevention strategies:

  • Effective measures for the secondary prevention of [disease name] include [strategy 1], [strategy 2], and [strategy 3].

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