Colorectal cancer differential diagnosis

Jump to: navigation, search
Home logo1.png

To view the differential diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), click here
To view the differential diagnosis of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), click here

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]: Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Trusha Tank, M.D.[2], Qurrat-ul-ain Abid, M.D.[3]

Overview

Colorectal cancer must be differentiated from other diseases that cause unexplained weight loss, unexplained loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anemia, jaundice, and fatigue, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), hemorrhoids, anal fissures, and diverticular disease. There are less common conditions that may be confused as colorectal cancer such as infectious colitis and gastrointestinal lymphoma.

Colorectal Cancer Differential Diagnosis

Other conditions that can be mistaken for colorectal cancer include the following:

ABBREVIATIONS:N/A: Not available , N/V: Nausea/vomiting, M/C: Most common, DRE: Digital rectal exam, RLQ: Right lower quadrant, LLQ: Left lower quadrant
Diseases Clinical manifestations Para-clinical findings Gold standard
Symptoms
Lab Findings Imaging Histopathology
Bowel frequency Blood in stool Abdominal pain Tenesmus Other symptoms Anemia Colonoscopy CT scan Other diagnostic study
Colorectal carcinoma (Adenocarcinoma)[7] ↑ or ↓ + +/- + + PET scans

Barium enema

Biopsy, genetic testing, and histopathological analysis
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
[8][9][10][11][12]
↑ or ↓ + + - + Barium enema

MRI

Genetic testing for STK11 and colonoscopy
Carcinoids
[13][14][15][16][17]
+/- + - +
  • Well-defined single/multiple lesions
  • Round/ovoid in shape
  • Variable in size between 2-5 cm
PET scan (11C-5-hydroxytryptophan, 11C-5-HTP)

MRI

Ki-67 index

  • Solid/spongy nests of cells accentuated by neatly outlined luminal spaces
Biopsy and histopathological analysis
Diseases Bowel frequency Blood in stool Abdominal pain Tenesmus Other symptoms Anemia Colonoscopy CT scan Other diagnostic study Histopathology Gold standard
Juvenile Polyposis Coli[18][19][20][21][22] + + - + Barium study

Stool DNA test

Diagnose if any of the following positive:

Diagnostic criteria fulfilment
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST)[23][24][25][26][27] - +/- - - +/- Benign

Malignant GIST with metastasis:

Endoscopic ultrasonography

Benign:

Malignant GIST:

Endoscopic ultrasound

biopsy and histopathological analysis

Hamartoma[30] + + +
  • N/A
-
  • Large polypoid mass
Biopsy Biopsy
Diseases Bowel frequency Blood in stool Abdominal pain Tenesmus Other symptoms Anemia Colonoscopy CT scan Other diagnostic study Histopathology Gold standard
Colorectal Lymphoma[31][32] - +/- + -
  • Weight loss
+
  • Polypoid or ulcerated mass, intramural lesion, aphthous ulcer, stricture, extraluminal mass, or diffuse, multiple polypoid lesions
Double-contrast enema

Biopsy

Biopsy
Kaposi's sarcoma[33] + + - +
  • N/A
Serology

Biopsy

Biopsy
Arteriovenous malformation[34] - + - -
  • N/A
+
  • Bright red, flat lesions
  • Rarely, polypoid
  • N/A
  • N/A
Accidental finding
Diseases Bowel frequency Blood in stool Abdominal pain Tenesmus Other symptoms Anemia Colonoscopy CT scan Other diagnostic study Histopathology Gold standard
Diverticular diseases[35][36][37] ↑ or ↓ +/- +

RLQ

- -
  • Not recommended
Barium enema
  • Circumferential narrowing
  • Spiculated contour
  • Tapered margins
  • N/A
CT scan
Hemorrhoids[38] + + -
  • Perianal Itching
  • Pain with defecation
  • Painful-hard lump in anus
+ Anoscopy
  • Protruding mass from the anus
  • N/A
DRE
  • N/A
Clinical
Anal fissure[39] - + + - +/- Anoscopy
  • Anal wall laceration
  • N/A
  • N/A
  • N/A
Clinical
Diseases Bowel frequency Blood in stool Abdominal pain Tenesmus Other symptoms Anemia Colonoscopy CT scan Other diagnostic study Histopathology Gold standard
Infectious colitis[40] + + - -
  • N/A
Stool analysis

Stool cultures

  • N/A
Stool culture
Ulcerative colitis[41]V + +

LLQ

+ +
  • N/A
  • N/A
Endoscopic biopsy
Crohn's disease[41] + +

RLQ

+ +
  • N/A
  • N/A
Endoscopic biopsy
Irritable bowel syndrome[42] ↑ ↓ + + + -
  • Not recommended
  • N/A
Diagnosis of exclusion
  • N/A
Clinical diagnosis (Rome criteria)
Diseases Bowel frequency Blood in stool Abdominal pain Tenesmus Other symptoms Anemia Colonoscopy CT scan Other diagnostic study Histopathology Gold standard
Appendicitis[43] - +

RLQ

- -
  • N/A

Ultrasound

  • Aperistaltic, noncompressible, dilated appendix (>6 mm)
  • Appendicolith
  • Echogenic prominent pericaecal fat
  • Periappendiceal fluid collection
  • N/A
CT scan
Strangulated hernia - +

RLQ

- -
  • N/A
Ultrasound:
  • N/A
Ultrasound
Bowel endometriosis[44] ↑ or ↓ + +

Pelvic

+ +
  • N/A
  • N/A
Transvaginal ultrasound
  • Heterogeneous, hypoechoic, spiculated mass

T1-weighted or fat-suppression T1-weighted MRIs

  • N/A
Transvaginal ultrasound
ABBREVIATIONS:N/A: Not available , N/V: Nausea/vomiting, M/C: Most common, DRE: Digital rectal exam, RLQ: Right lower quadrant, LLQ: Left lower quadrant

References

  1. Laurell H, Hansson LE, Gunnarsson U (2007). "Acute diverticulitis--clinical presentation and differential diagnostics". Colorectal Dis. 9 (6): 496–501, discussion 501-2. doi:10.1111/j.1463-1318.2006.01162.x. PMID 17573742.
  2. Hardin, M. Acute Appendicitis: Review and Update. Am Fam Physician".1999, Nov 1;60(7):2027-2034
  3. Hanauer SB (1996). "Inflammatory bowel disease". N Engl J Med. 334 (13): 841–8. doi:10.1056/NEJM199603283341307. PMID 8596552.
  4. Cystitis-acute. MedlinePlus.https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000526.htm Accessed on February 9, 2016
  5. Prostatitis - bacterial. NLM Medline Plus 2016. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000519.htm. Accessed on March 2, 2016
  6. Ford GW, Decker CF (2016). "Pelvic inflammatory disease". Dis Mon. 62 (8): 301–5. doi:10.1016/j.disamonth.2016.03.015. PMID 27107781.
  7. Secco GB, Fardelli R, Campora E, Lapertosa G, Gentile R, Zoli S, Prior C (1994). "Primary mucinous adenocarcinomas and signet-ring cell carcinomas of colon and rectum". Oncology. 51 (1): 30–4. doi:10.1159/000227306. PMID 8265100.
  8. Zhong ME, Niu BZ, Ji WY, Wu B (June 2016). "Laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for Peutz-Jeghers syndrome with synchronous rectal cancer". World J. Gastroenterol. 22 (22): 5293–6. doi:10.3748/wjg.v22.i22.5293. PMID 27298573.
  9. Kopacova, Marcela; Tacheci, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Bures, Jan (2009). "Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: Diagnostic and therapeuticapproach". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 15 (43): 5397. doi:10.3748/wjg.15.5397. ISSN 1007-9327.
  10. Giardiello, F; Trimbath, J (2006). "Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome and Management Recommendations". Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 4 (4): 408–415. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2005.11.005. ISSN 1542-3565.
  11. Beggs, A. D.; Latchford, A. R.; Vasen, H. F. A.; Moslein, G.; Alonso, A.; Aretz, S.; Bertario, L.; Blanco, I.; Bulow, S.; Burn, J.; Capella, G.; Colas, C.; Friedl, W.; Moller, P.; Hes, F. J.; Jarvinen, H.; Mecklin, J.-P.; Nagengast, F. M.; Parc, Y.; Phillips, R. K. S.; Hyer, W.; Ponz de Leon, M.; Renkonen-Sinisalo, L.; Sampson, J. R.; Stormorken, A.; Tejpar, S.; Thomas, H. J. W.; Wijnen, J. T.; Clark, S. K.; Hodgson, S. V. (2010). "Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: a systematic review and recommendations for management". Gut. 59 (7): 975–986. doi:10.1136/gut.2009.198499. ISSN 0017-5749.
  12. Kopacova, Marcela; Tacheci, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Bures, Jan (2009). "Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: Diagnostic and therapeuticapproach". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 15 (43): 5397. doi:10.3748/wjg.15.5397. ISSN 1007-9327.
  13. Chung TP, Hunt SR (May 2006). "Carcinoid and neuroendocrine tumors of the colon and rectum". Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 19 (2): 45–8. doi:10.1055/s-2006-942343. PMC 2780103. PMID 20011309.
  14. Diagnostics: Biochemical Markers, Imaging, and Approach. National cancer institute. http://www.cancer.gov/types/gi-carcinoid-tumors/hp/gi-carcinoid-treatment-pdq
  15. Rindi G, Falconi M, Klersy C, Albarello L, Boninsegna L, Buchler MW, Capella C, Caplin M, Couvelard A, Doglioni C, Delle Fave G, Fischer L, Fusai G, de Herder WW, Jann H, Komminoth P, de Krijger RR, La Rosa S, Luong TV, Pape U, Perren A, Ruszniewski P, Scarpa A, Schmitt A, Solcia E, Wiedenmann B (May 2012). "TNM staging of neoplasms of the endocrine pancreas: results from a large international cohort study". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 104 (10): 764–77. doi:10.1093/jnci/djs208. PMID 22525418.
  16. Fang C, Wang W, Zhang Y, Feng X, Sun J, Zeng Y, Chen Y, Li Y, Chen M, Zhou Z, Chen J (June 2017). "Clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: a multicenter study in South China". Chin J Cancer. 36 (1): 51. doi:10.1186/s40880-017-0218-3. PMC 5480192. PMID 28637502.
  17. Signs and symptoms of carcinoid syndrome. National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/types/gi-carcinoid-tumors/patient/gi-carcinoid-treatment-pdq
  18. Grotsky HW, Rickert RR, Smith WD, Newsome JF (March 1982). "Familial juvenile polyposis coli. A clinical and pathologic study of a large kindred". Gastroenterology. 82 (3): 494–501. PMID 7054044.
  19. Brosens LA, Langeveld D, van Hattem WA, Giardiello FM, Offerhaus GJ (November 2011). "Juvenile polyposis syndrome". World J. Gastroenterol. 17 (44): 4839–44. doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i44.4839. PMC 3235625. PMID 22171123.
  20. Latchford AR, Neale K, Phillips RK, Clark SK (October 2012). "Juvenile polyposis syndrome: a study of genotype, phenotype, and long-term outcome". Dis. Colon Rectum. 55 (10): 1038–43. doi:10.1097/DCR.0b013e31826278b3. PMID 22965402.
  21. Latchford AR, Neale K, Phillips RK, Clark SK (October 2012). "Juvenile polyposis syndrome: a study of genotype, phenotype, and long-term outcome". Dis. Colon Rectum. 55 (10): 1038–43. doi:10.1097/DCR.0b013e31826278b3. PMID 22965402.
  22. Latchford AR, Neale K, Phillips RK, Clark SK (October 2012). "Juvenile polyposis syndrome: a study of genotype, phenotype, and long-term outcome". Dis. Colon Rectum. 55 (10): 1038–43. doi:10.1097/DCR.0b013e31826278b3. PMID 22965402.
  23. Niazi AK, Kaley K, Saif MW (May 2014). "Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of colon: a case report and review of literature". Anticancer Res. 34 (5): 2547–50. PMID 24778074.
  24. Niazi AK, Kaley K, Saif MW (May 2014). "Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of colon: a case report and review of literature". Anticancer Res. 34 (5): 2547–50. PMID 24778074.
  25. Medeiros F, Corless CL, Duensing A, Hornick JL, Oliveira AM, Heinrich MC, Fletcher JA, Fletcher CD (July 2004). "KIT-negative gastrointestinal stromal tumors: proof of concept and therapeutic implications". Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 28 (7): 889–94. PMID 15223958.
  26. Kamiyama Y, Aihara R, Nakabayashi T, Mochiki E, Asao T, Kuwano H, Oriuchi N, Endo K (November 2005). "18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography: useful technique for predicting malignant potential of gastrointestinal stromal tumors". World J Surg. 29 (11): 1429–35. doi:10.1007/s00268-005-0045-6. PMID 16222452.
  27. Miettinen M, Sobin LH, Lasota J (January 2005). "Gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of 1765 cases with long-term follow-up". Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 29 (1): 52–68. PMID 15613856.
  28. Fletcher CD, Berman JJ, Corless C, Gorstein F, Lasota J, Longley BJ, Miettinen M, O'Leary TJ, Remotti H, Rubin BP, Shmookler B, Sobin LH, Weiss SW (April 2002). "Diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a consensus approach". Int. J. Surg. Pathol. 10 (2): 81–9. doi:10.1177/106689690201000201. PMID 12075401.
  29. Fletcher CD, Berman JJ, Corless C, Gorstein F, Lasota J, Longley BJ, Miettinen M, O'Leary TJ, Remotti H, Rubin BP, Shmookler B, Sobin LH, Weiss SW (April 2002). "Diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a consensus approach". Int. J. Surg. Pathol. 10 (2): 81–9. doi:10.1177/106689690201000201. PMID 12075401.
  30. Cauchin E, Touchefeu Y, Matysiak-Budnik T (September 2015). "Hamartomatous Tumors in the Gastrointestinal Tract". Gastrointest Tumors. 2 (2): 65–74. doi:10.1159/000437175. PMC 4668787. PMID 26672891.
  31. Quayle FJ, Lowney JK (May 2006). "Colorectal lymphoma". Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 19 (2): 49–53. doi:10.1055/s-2006-942344. PMC 2780105. PMID 20011310.
  32. Quayle, Frank; Lowney, Jennifer (2006). "Colorectal Lymphoma". Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery. 19 (2): 049–053. doi:10.1055/s-2006-942344. ISSN 1531-0043.
  33. Arora M, Goldberg EM (July 2010). "Kaposi sarcoma involving the gastrointestinal tract". Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 6 (7): 459–62. PMC 2933764. PMID 20827371.
  34. Lee HH, Kwon HM, Gil S, Kim YS, Cho M, Seo KJ, Chae HS, Cho YS (2017). "Endoscopic resection of asymptomatic, colonic, polypoid arteriovenous malformations: Two case reports and a literature review". Saudi J Gastroenterol. 23 (1): 67–70. doi:10.4103/1319-3767.199111. PMC 5329980. PMID 28139503.
  35. Shen SH, Chen JD, Tiu CM, Chou YH, Chiang JH, Chang CY, Lee CH (September 2005). "Differentiating colonic diverticulitis from colon cancer: the value of computed tomography in the emergency setting". J Chin Med Assoc. 68 (9): 411–8. doi:10.1016/S1726-4901(09)70156-X. PMID 16187597.
  36. Shen, Shu-Huei; Chen, Jen-Dar; Tiu, Chui-Mei; Chou, Yi-Hong; Chiang, Jen-Huei; Chang, Cheng-Yen; Lee, Chen-Hsen (2005). "Differentiating Colonic Diverticulitis from Colon Cancer: The Value of Computed Tomography in the Emergency Setting". Journal of the Chinese Medical Association. 68 (9): 411–418. doi:10.1016/S1726-4901(09)70156-X. ISSN 1726-4901.
  37. Sheiman, Laura; Levine, Marc S.; Levin, Alicia A.; Hogan, Jonathan; Rubesin, Stephen E.; Furth, Emma E.; Laufer, Igor (2008). "Chronic Diverticulitis: Clinical, Radiographic, and Pathologic Findings". American Journal of Roentgenology. 191 (2): 522–528. doi:10.2214/AJR.07.3597. ISSN 0361-803X.
  38. Jacobs, Danny; Solomon, Caren G. (2014). "Hemorrhoids". New England Journal of Medicine. 371 (10): 944–951. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp1204188. ISSN 0028-4793.
  39. Schlichtemeier S, Engel A (2016). "Anal fissure". Aust Prescr. 39 (1): 14–7. doi:10.18773/austprescr.2016.007. PMC 4816871. PMID 27041801.
  40. DuPont HL (January 2012). "Approach to the patient with infectious colitis". Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 28 (1): 39–46. doi:10.1097/MOG.0b013e32834d3208. PMID 22080825.
  41. 41.0 41.1 Fakhoury M, Negrulj R, Mooranian A, Al-Salami H (2014). "Inflammatory bowel disease: clinical aspects and treatments". J Inflamm Res. 7: 113–20. doi:10.2147/JIR.S65979. PMC 4106026. PMID 25075198.
  42. Iwańczak B, Iwańczak F (August 2017). "[Functional gastrointestinal disorders in children and adolescents. The Rome IV criteria]". Pol. Merkur. Lekarski (in Polish). 43 (254): 75–82. PMID 28875974.
  43. Choi D, Park H, Lee YR, Kook SH, Kim SK, Kwag HJ, Chung EC (2003). "The most useful findings for diagnosing acute appendicitis on contrast-enhanced helical CT". Acta Radiol. 44 (6): 574–82. PMID 14616200.
  44. Wolthuis AM, Meuleman C, Tomassetti C, D'Hooghe T, de Buck van Overstraeten A, D'Hoore A (November 2014). "Bowel endometriosis: colorectal surgeon's perspective in a multidisciplinary surgical team". World J. Gastroenterol. 20 (42): 15616–23. doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i42.15616. PMC 4229526. PMID 25400445.

Linked-in.jpg