Chloric acid

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Template:Chembox E numberTemplate:Chembox SolubilityInWater
Chloric acid
Other names Chloric(V) acid
Identifiers
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Properties
HClO3
Molar mass 84.45914 g mol−1
Appearance colourless solution
Density 1 g/mL, solution (approximate)
Acidity (pKa) ca. −1
Structure
Molecular shape pyramidal
Hazards
Main hazards Oxidant
Related compounds
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Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Chloric acid, HClO3, is an oxoacid of chlorine, and the formal precursor of chlorate salts. It is a strong acid (pKa ≈ −1) and oxidising agent.

It is prepared by the reaction of sulfuric acid with barium chlorate, the insoluble barium sulfate being removed by precipitation:

Ba(ClO3)2 + H2SO4 → 2HClO3 + BaSO4

Another method is the heating of hypochlorous acid, of which productions include chloric acid and hydrogen chloride:

3HClO → HClO3 + 2 HCl

It is stable in cold aqueous solution up to a concentration of approximately 30%, and solution of up to 40% can be prepared by careful evaporation under reduced pressure. Above these concentrations, and on warming, chloric acid solutions decompose to give a variety of products, for example:

8HClO3 → 4HClO4 + 2H2O + 2Cl2 + 3 O2
3HClO3 → HClO4 + H2O + 2 ClO2

The decomposition is controlled by kinetic factors: indeed, chloric acid is never thermodynamically stable with respect to disproportionation.

See also

References

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de:Chlorsäure it:Acido clorico nl:Waterstofchloraat sr:Хлорна киселина


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