Celiac disease risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1];Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Furqan M M. M.B.B.S[2]Seyedmahdi Pahlavani, M.D. [3]

Overview

Common risk factors in the development of celiac disease include a positive family history, HLA genes, other autoimmune diseases, infections, and certain drugs.

Risk Factors

Common risk factors in the development of celiac disease may be environmental, genetic, infections and certain drugs.[1]

Common Risk Factors

Less Common Risk Factors

  • Less common risk factors in the development of celiac disease include:[16]
    • Non-recommended infant feeding practices:

References

  1. Di Sabatino A, Corazza GR (2009). "Coeliac disease". Lancet. 373 (9673): 1480–93. PMID 19394538. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60254-3. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Forsberg G, Fahlgren A, Hörstedt P, Hammarström S, Hernell O, Hammarström ML (2004). "Presence of bacteria and innate immunity of intestinal epithelium in childhood celiac disease". Am. J. Gastroenterol. 99 (5): 894–904. PMID 15128357. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2004.04157.x. 
  3. Fasano A, Berti I, Gerarduzzi T, Not T, Colletti RB, Drago S, Elitsur Y, Green PH, Guandalini S, Hill ID, Pietzak M, Ventura A, Thorpe M, Kryszak D, Fornaroli F, Wasserman SS, Murray JA, Horvath K (2003). "Prevalence of celiac disease in at-risk and not-at-risk groups in the United States: a large multicenter study". Arch. Intern. Med. 163 (3): 286–92. PMID 12578508. 
  4. Murray JA (2005). "Celiac disease in patients with an affected member, type 1 diabetes, iron-deficiency, or osteoporosis?". Gastroenterology. 128 (4 Suppl 1): S52–6. PMID 15825127. 
  5. "Gliadin immune reactivity is associated with overt and latent enteropathy in relatives of celiac patients - ScienceDirect". 
  6. Nisticò L, Fagnani C, Coto I, Percopo S, Cotichini R, Limongelli MG, Paparo F, D'Alfonso S, Giordano M, Sferlazzas C, Magazzù G, Momigliano-Richiardi P, Greco L, Stazi MA (2006). "Concordance, disease progression, and heritability of coeliac disease in Italian twins". Gut. 55 (6): 803–8. PMC 1856233Freely accessible. PMID 16354797. doi:10.1136/gut.2005.083964. 
  7. Sollid LM, Markussen G, Ek J, Gjerde H, Vartdal F, Thorsby E (1989). "Evidence for a primary association of celiac disease to a particular HLA-DQ alpha/beta heterodimer". J. Exp. Med. 169 (1): 345–50. PMC 2189170Freely accessible. PMID 2909659. 
  8. "Co-occurrence of celiac disease and other autoimmune diseases in celiacs and their first-degree relatives - ScienceDirect". 
  9. Cataldo F, Marino V, Bottaro G, Greco P, Ventura A (1997). "Celiac disease and selective immunoglobulin A deficiency". J. Pediatr. 131 (2): 306–8. PMID 9290622. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 "www.omicsonline.org". 
  11. Cammarota G, Cuoco L, Cianci R, Pandolfi F, Gasbarrini G (2000). "Onset of coeliac disease during treatment with interferon for chronic hepatitis C". Lancet. 356 (9240): 1494–5. PMID 11081540. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02880-4. 
  12. Stene LC, Honeyman MC, Hoffenberg EJ, Haas JE, Sokol RJ, Emery L, Taki I, Norris JM, Erlich HA, Eisenbarth GS, Rewers M (2006). "Rotavirus infection frequency and risk of celiac disease autoimmunity in early childhood: a longitudinal study". Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101 (10): 2333–40. PMID 17032199. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2006.00741.x. 
  13. Zanoni G, Navone R, Lunardi C, Tridente G, Bason C, Sivori S, Beri R, Dolcino M, Valletta E, Corrocher R, Puccetti A (2006). "In celiac disease, a subset of autoantibodies against transglutaminase binds toll-like receptor 4 and induces activation of monocytes". PLoS Med. 3 (9): e358. PMC 1569884Freely accessible. PMID 16984219. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030358. 
  14. Molberg Ø, Solheim Flaete N, Jensen T, Lundin KE, Arentz-Hansen H, Anderson OD, Kjersti Uhlen A, Sollid LM (2003). "Intestinal T-cell responses to high-molecular-weight glutenins in celiac disease". Gastroenterology. 125 (2): 337–44. PMID 12891534. 
  15. Lundin KE, Wijmenga C (2015). "Coeliac disease and autoimmune disease-genetic overlap and screening". Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 12 (9): 507–15. PMID 26303674. doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2015.136. 
  16. Ivarsson A, Hernell O, Stenlund H, Persson LA (2002). "Breast-feeding protects against celiac disease". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 75 (5): 914–21. PMID 11976167. 
  17. Norris JM, Barriga K, Hoffenberg EJ, Taki I, Miao D, Haas JE, Emery LM, Sokol RJ, Erlich HA, Eisenbarth GS, Rewers M. (2005). "Risk of celiac disease autoimmunity and timing of gluten introduction in the diet of infants at increased risk of disease". JAMA. 293 (19): 2343–2351. PMID 15900004. 

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