Celiac disease epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1];Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Akshun Kalia M.B.B.S.[2]

Overview

Celiac disease is more prevalent than previously thought. The prevalence of celiac disease in 2017 has been estimated to be 500 to 1000 per 100,000 individuals worldwide. The incidence of celiac disease is approximately 10-13 per 100,000 individuals worldwide. Celiac disease affects children and adults alike. Celiac disease usually affects individuals of the non-Hispanic white race (1000 per 100,000 individuals), Hispanics (300 per 100,000 individuals) and non-Hispanic blacks (200 per 100,000 individuals). Women are more commonly affected by celiac disease than men. In Africa, Algerian refugees have the highest prevalence rate of 5600 per 100,000 individuals.

Epidemiology and Demographics

Incidence

  • The incidence of celiac disease is approximately 10-13 per 100,000 individuals worldwide.[1]
  • In United States the incidence of celiac disease is approximately 10 per 100,000 individuals.
  • The incidence of celiac disease has been increasing over the years. This can be attributed to increasing use of serologic screening, leading to more accurate results and early diagnosis in cases of mild disease. A general trend in incidence of celiac disease over the years is as under:[2]
    • In 1950, the incidence of celiac disease was estimated to be 1 case per 100,000 individuals worldwide.
    • In 1960-1980, the incidence of celiac disease was estimated to be 2 cases per 100,000 individuals worldwide.
    • In 1990, the incidence of celiac disease was estimated to be 3-5 cases per 100,000 individuals worldwide.
    • In 2000, the incidence of celiac disease was estimated to be 9 cases per 100,000 individuals worldwide.

Prevalence

  • Worldwide, the prevalence of celiac disease is estimated to be 500 to 1000 per 100,000 individuals.[3]
  • In United States, the prevalence of celiac disease is approximately 710 per 100,000 individuals.[4]
  • The overall prevalence of celiac disease has been increasing in United States from 170 per 100,000 individuals in 1988 to 440 per 100,000 individuals in 2012.[5]
  • In Europe the prevalence of celiac disease is estimated to be 1000 per 100,000 individuals. The Scandinavian countries, Ireland, and the United Kingdom population tended to show a higher prevalence of celiac disease of approximately 1000 to 1500 per 100,000 individuals.[6]
  • In Australia the prevalence of celiac disease is estimated to be 400 per 100,000 individuals.[7]
  • In New Zealand the prevalence of celiac disease is estimated to be 1200 per 100,000 individuals.[7]
  • In India the prevalence of celiac disease is estimated to be 300 per 100,000 individuals.[8]
  • In North Africa, Algeria with its refugees in the Sahara desert have the highest prevalence of celiac disease at 5600 per 100,000 individuals.[9]
  • The risk for celiac disease is higher for people with diabetes, autoimmune disorder and relatives with celiac disease individuals because of shared HLA typing.[10]

Age

  • Celiac disease affects children and adults alike.
  • In children celiac disease peaks in early childhood.
  • In adults celiac disease is usually diagnosed around fourth and fifth decades of life.

Race

  • Celiac disease usually affects individuals of the non-Hispanic white race (1000 per 100,000 individuals), Hispanics (300 per 100,000 individuals) and non-Hispanic blacks (200 per 100,000 individuals).
  • HLA-DQ2 associated celiac disease is frequently found in white populations located in Western Europe.

Gender

  • Women are more commonly affected by celiac disease than men.[11]
  • The female to male ratio is approximately 3:1.
  • In contrast, patients over the age of 60 who are diagnosed with celiac disease are most commonly males.[12]

Region

  • Tthe highest prevalence of celiac disease has been reported in Algerian refugees. These individuals have a high rate of consanguinity and high frequencies of HLA-DQ2.

References

  1. Murray JA, Van Dyke C, Plevak MF, Dierkhising RA, Zinsmeister AR, Melton LJ (2003). "Trends in the identification and clinical features of celiac disease in a North American community, 1950-2001". Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 1 (1): 19–27. PMID 15017513. doi:10.1053/jcgh.2003.50004. 
  2. Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; van Dyke, Carol T; Melton, L Joseph; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Lahr, Brian D; Murray, Joseph A (2013). "Increasing Incidence of Celiac Disease in a North American Population". The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 108 (5): 818–824. ISSN 0002-9270. doi:10.1038/ajg.2013.60. 
  3. Gujral, Naiyana (2012). "Celiac disease: Prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 18 (42): 6036. ISSN 1007-9327. doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i42.6036. 
  4. Rubio-Tapia A, Ludvigsson JF, Brantner TL, Murray JA, Everhart JE (2012). "The prevalence of celiac disease in the United States". Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107 (10): 1538–44; quiz 1537, 1545. PMID 22850429. doi:10.1038/ajg.2012.219. 
  5. Choung RS, Ditah IC, Nadeau AM, Rubio-Tapia A, Marietta EV, Brantner TL, Camilleri MJ, Rajkumar SV, Landgren O, Everhart JE, Murray JA (2015). "Trends and racial/ethnic disparities in gluten-sensitive problems in the United States: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1988 to 2012". Am. J. Gastroenterol. 110 (3): 455–61. PMID 25665935. doi:10.1038/ajg.2015.8. 
  6. Cataldo F, Pitarresi N, Accomando S, Greco L (2004). "Epidemiological and clinical features in immigrant children with coeliac disease: an Italian multicentre study". Dig Liver Dis. 36 (11): 722–9. PMID 15571002. doi:10.1016/j.dld.2004.03.021. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Cook HB, Burt MJ, Collett JA, Whitehead MR, Frampton CM, Chapman BA (2000). "Adult coeliac disease: prevalence and clinical significance". J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 15 (9): 1032–6. PMID 11059933. 
  8. Sood A, Midha V, Sood N, Avasthi G, Sehgal A (2006). "Prevalence of celiac disease among school children in Punjab, North India". J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 21 (10): 1622–5. PMID 16928227. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2006.04281.x. 
  9. Lionetti P, Favilli T, Chiaravalloti G, Ughi C, Maggiore G (1999). "Coeliac disease in Saharawi children in Algerian refugee camps". Lancet. 353 (9159): 1189–90. PMID 10210014. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)74414-7. 
  10. Fasano A, Berti I, Gerarduzzi T, Not T, Colletti R, Drago S, Elitsur Y, Green P, Guandalini S, Hill I, Pietzak M, Ventura A, Thorpe M, Kryszak D, Fornaroli F, Wasserman S, Murray J, Horvath K (2003). "Prevalence of celiac disease in at-risk and not-at-risk groups in the United States: a large multicenter study". Archives of Internal Medicine. 163 (3): 286–92. PMID 12578508. 
  11. Jacobson DL, Gange SJ, Rose NR, Graham NM (1997). "Epidemiology and estimated population burden of selected autoimmune diseases in the United States". Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 84 (3): 223–43. PMID 9281381. 
  12. Green P, Stavropoulos SN, Panagi SG, Goldstein SL, Mcmahon DJ, Absan H, Neugut AI (2001). "Characteristics of adult celiac disease in the USA: results of a national survey". Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96 (1): 126–31. PMID 11197241. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2001.03462.x. 



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