Carob tree

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Carob Tree
carob pods
carob pods
carob leaflets
carob leaflets
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae
Genus: Ceratonia
Species: C. siliqua
Binomial name
Ceratonia siliqua
Linnaeus

The Carob tree (from Arabic: خروب "kharūb" and Hebrew: חרוב Charuv), Ceratonia siliqua, is an evergreen shrub or tree native to the Mediterranean region, cultivated for its edible seed pods.

Morphology

This tree grows up to 10 meters tall. The crown is broad and semi-spherical, supported by a thick trunk with brown rough bark and sturdy branches. Leaves are 10–20 cm long, alternate, pinnate, and may or may not have a terminal leaflet. The flowers are a green-tinted red, small, numerous, and about 6–12 mm long. They are spirally arranged along the inflorescence axis in catkin-like racemes borne on spurs from old wood and even on the trunk (cauliflory). The fruit is a pod which can be elongated, compressed, straight or curved, and thickened at the sutures. Carob is a member of the legume family, and as such its roots host bacteria which convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates which can be used by plants to make proteins.

Habitat

These trees cannot withstand waterlogging, although the root system is usually deep. It grows well in warm temperate and subtropical areas and tolerates hot and humid coastal areas. It is a xerophytic (drought-resistant) species, well adapted to the ecological conditions of the Mediterranean region. present in the altiplanic desert of South America. The carob tree is typical in the southern Portuguese region of the Algarve, where it has the name alfarrobeira (for the tree), and alfarroba (for the fruit), as well as in southern Spain (Spanish: algarrobo, algarroba) and on the Italian islands of Sicily and Sardinia (Italian: carrubo, carruba). The various trees known as algarrobo in Latin America (Hymenaea courbaril in Colombia and four kinds of Prosopis in Argentina and Paraguay) belong to a different family, the Cesalpinaceae.

File:Carob-Tree2.jpg
Inside of tree. Note that old pods can stay on tree for years

History

Ceratonia siliqua, the scientific name of the carob tree, derives from the Greek kerátiōn (κεράτιων), “fruit of the carob” (from keras [κέρας] "horn"), and Latin siliqua "pod, carob." The term "carat", the unit by which diamond weight is measured, is also derived from the Greek word kerátiōn (κεράτιων), alluding to an ancient practice of people in the Middle East weighing gold and gemstones against the seeds of the carob tree. The system was eventually standardized and one carat was fixed at 0.2 grams.

In late Roman and early Byzantine times the pure gold coin known as the solidus weighed 24 carat seeds (about 4.5 grams). As a result, the carat also became a measure of purity for gold. Thus 24 carat gold means 100% pure, 12 carat gold means the alloy contains 50% gold, etc.

Traditional Uses

Carob was eaten in Ancient Egypt. It was also a common sweetener and was used in the hieroglyph for "sweet" (nedjem).

Dried carob fruit is traditionally eaten on the Jewish holiday of Tu Bishvat. Carob juice drinks are traditionally drunk on the Islamic holiday of Ramadan.

Carob pods were the most important source of sugar before sugarcane and sugar beets became widely available. Nowadays, the seeds are processed for the use in cosmetics, curing tobacco, and making paper.

Current Use

Also known as St John's Bread, Carob is not a staple food in any area, but provides sustenance during times when other crops are scarce and is a traditional feed for livestock (donkeys, in particular) in many areas.

Carob is also eaten fresh, put in cakes, icing, and sometimes cookies. The seeds themselves, also known as locust beans, are used as animal feed. They are also the source of locust bean gum, a thickening agent.

In Egypt, it is used as a snack or treat. It is said to have laxative qualities. Moreover, the crushed pods are used to make a refreshing drink with a distinctive taste.

Compotes and liqueurs are made from carob, most popular in Portugal, Spain and Sicily. These products originated from the Algarve Template:Fix/category[citation needed] and have become a revered produce.

Some claim that the roasted flesh of carob pods tastes similar to sweetened cocoa, and promote products based on this fruit as a substitute for chocolate, usually referred to simply as "carob". Similarly, it is sometimes made into "chips", for use in baking, or used in pet-food as a treat.

See also

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References and external links

ar:خروب ca:Garrofer da:Johannesbrød de:Johannisbrotbaum et:Jaanikaunapuu el:Χαρουπιά gl:Alfarrobeira hsb:Rohowc it:Ceratonia siliqua he:חרוב lt:Saldžioji ceratonija nl:Johannesbroodboom sk:Rohovník obyčajný fi:Johanneksenleipäpuu sv:Johannesbrödsträd wa:Caroubî


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