Cardiac tamponade epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Ramyar Ghandriz MD[2]

Overview

The cardiac tamponade is most often attributed to the rupture of an acute myocardial infarction or an intrapericardial rupture of a dissecting ascending aortic aneurysm. In developed countries malignancy is the leading cause of cardiac tamponade secondary to pericardial effusion.The incidence of cardiac tamponade based on a giant sample size of about 216 million emergency admissions was about 115,638(0.05%). The incidence of cardiac tamponade increases with age; the mean age was around 61.9. Cardiac temponade mortality rate is significantly different due to its underlying cause.

Epidemiology and Demographics

Incidence

  • The incidence of cardiac tamponade based on a giant sample size of about 216 million emergency admissions was about 115,638(0.05%)[1][2][3][4]

Case-fatality rate/Mortality rate

  • Cardiac temponade mortality rate is significantly different due to its underlying cause.[5][1][6]
  • Overall, hospitalized mortality rate is around 14.3% and sub groups with higher mortality are :
    1. Sepsis (odds ratio:3.17)
    2. Chest trauma (odds ratio:2.15)
    3. Metastatic cancer:(odds ratio:1.90)
    4. Acute kidney injury(odds ratio:1.91)
    5. Idiopathic pericarditis (odds ratio: 0.21, least cause of mortality)

Age

  • The incidence of cardiac tamponade increases with age; the mean age was around 61.9.[1][7]

Race

  • There is no racial predilection to cardiac tamponade.

Gender

  • Cardiac tamponade affects men and women equally.
  • There is no study suggesting a meaningful sex difference among diagnosed patients.

Approximate Health Care cost In US

  • It needs around 12 days of hospitalization and a mean cost of $160,397.

Developed Countries

  • The leading cause of developing tamponade in developed countries is cancer.[7]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "CARDIAC TAMPONADE INCIDENCE, DEMOGRAPHICS AND IN-HOSPITAL OUTCOMES: ANALYSIS OF THE NATIONAL INPATIENT SAMPLE DATABASE | JACC: Journal of the American College of Cardiology".
  2. Yerdel MA, Şen O, Zor U, Kara S, Acunaş B (September 2018). "Cardiac Tamponade as a Life-Threatening Complication of Laparoscopic Antireflux Surgery: The Real Incidence and 3D Anatomy of a Heart Injury by Helical Tacks". J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 28 (9): 1041–1046. doi:10.1089/lap.2017.0713. PMC 6157358. PMID 29493372.
  3. Ariyarajah V, Spodick DH (2007). "Cardiac tamponade revisited: a postmortem look at a cautionary case". Tex Heart Inst J. 34 (3): 347–51. PMC 1995065. PMID 17948086.
  4. Spodick DH (August 2003). "Acute cardiac tamponade". N. Engl. J. Med. 349 (7): 684–90. doi:10.1056/NEJMra022643. PMID 12917306.
  5. Porte HL, Janecki-Delebecq TJ, Finzi L, Métois DG, Millaire A, Wurtz AJ (1999). "Pericardoscopy for primary management of pericardial effusion in cancer patients". Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 16 (3): 287–91. PMID 10554845.
  6. You SC, Shim CY, Hong GR, Kim D, Cho IJ, Lee S, Chang HJ, Ha JW, Chang BC, Chung N (2016). "Incidence, Predictors, and Clinical Outcomes of Postoperative Cardiac Tamponade in Patients Undergoing Heart Valve Surgery". PLoS ONE. 11 (11): e0165754. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0165754. PMC 5113894. PMID 27855225.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Gornik HL, Gerhard-Herman M, Beckman JA (2005). "Abnormal cytology predicts poor prognosis in cancer patients with pericardial effusion". J Clin Oncol. 23 (22): 5211–6. doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.00.745. PMID 16051963.

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