Carboplatin

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Carboplatin
Black Box Warning
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aparna Vuppala, M.B.B.S. [2]

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Black Box Warning

WARNING
See full prescribing information for complete Boxed Warning.
  • Carboplatin injection should be administered under the supervision of a qualified physician experienced in the use of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Appropriate management of therapy and complications is possible only when adequate treatment facilities are readily available.
  • Bone marrow suppression is dose related and may be severe, resulting in infection and/or bleeding. Anemia may be cumulative and may require transfusion support. Vomiting is another frequent drug-related side effect.
  • Anaphylactic-like reactions to carboplatin have been reported and may occur within minutes of carboplatin administration. Epinephrine, corticosteroids, and antihistamines have been employed to alleviate symptoms.

Overview

Carboplatin is an antineoplastic agent that is FDA approved for the treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma. There is a Black Box Warning for this drug as shown here. Common adverse reactions include alopecia, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hyponatremia, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, pain, and elevation of alkaline phosphatase, AST, BUN, and creatinine.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Indications

Initial Treatment of Advanced Ovarian Carcinoma
  • Carboplatin Injection is indicated for the initial treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma in established combination with other approved chemotherapeutic agents. One established combination regimen consists of Carboplatin Injection and cyclophosphamide. Two randomized controlled studies conducted by the NCIC and SWOG with carboplatin vs. cisplatin, both in combination with cyclophosphamide, have demonstrated equivalent overall survival between the two groups
  • There is limited statistical power to demonstrate equivalence in overall pathologic complete response rates and long-term survival (≥3 years) because of the small number of patients with these outcomes: the small number of patients with residual tumor <2 cm after initial surgery also limits the statistical power to demonstrate equivalence in this subgroup.
Secondary Treatment of Advanced Ovarian Carcinoma
  • Within the group of patients previously treated with cisplatin, those who have developed progressive disease while receiving cisplatin therapy may have a decreased response rate.

Dosage

NOTE: Aluminum reacts with carboplatin causing precipitate formation and loss of potency, therefore, needles or intravenous sets containing aluminum parts that may come in contact with the drug must not be used for the preparation or administration of Carboplatin Injection.

Single Agent Therapy
  • Carboplatin Injection, as a single agent, has been shown to be effective in patients with recurrent ovarian carcinoma at a dosage of 360 mg/m2 IV on day 1 every 4 weeks (alternatively see Formula Dosing). In general, however, single intermittent courses of Carboplatin Injection should not be repeated until the neutrophil count is at least 2000 and the platelet count is at least 100,000.
Combination Therapy with Cyclophosphamide
  • In the chemotherapy of advanced ovarian cancer, an effective combination for previously untreated patients consists of:
  • Carboplatin Injection - 300 mg/m2 IV on day 1 every four weeks for six cycles (alternatively see Formula Dosing).
  • Cyclophosphamide - 600 mg/m2 IV on day 1 every four weeks for six cycles. For directions regarding the use and administration of cyclophosphamide .
Dose Adjustment Recommendations
  • The suggested dose adjustments for single agent or combination therapy shown in the table below are modified from controlled trials in previously treated and untreated patients with ovarian carcinoma. Blood counts were done weekly, and the recommendations are based on the lowest post-treatment platelet or neutrophil value.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Patients with Impaired Kidney Function
  • Patients with creatinine clearance values below 60 mL/min are at increased risk of severe bone marrow suppression. In renally-impaired patients who received single-agent Carboplatin Injection therapy, the incidence of severe leukopenia, neutropenia, or thrombocytopenia has been about 25% when the dosage modifications in the table below have been used.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • The data available for patients with severely impaired kidney function (creatinine clearance below 15 mL/min) are too limited to permit a recommendation for treatment.
  • These dosing recommendations apply to the initial course of treatment. Subsequent dosages should be adjusted according to the patient’s tolerance based on the degree of bone marrow suppression.
Formula Dosing
  • Another approach for determining the initial dose of Carboplatin Injection is the use of mathematical formulae, which are based on a patient’s preexisting renal function or renal function and desired platelet nadir. Renal excretion is the major route of elimination for carboplatin. The use of dosing formulae, as compared to empirical dose calculation based on body surface area, allows compensation for patient variations in pretreatment renal function that might otherwise result in either underdosing (in patients with above average renal function) or overdosing (in patients with impaired renal function).
  • A simple formula for calculating dosage, based upon a patient’s glomerular filtration rate (GFR in mL/min) and Carboplatin Injection target area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC in mg/mL•min), has been proposed by Calvert. In these studies, GFR was measured by 51Cr-EDTA clearance.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Geriatric Dosing
  • Because renal function is often decreased in elderly patients, formula dosing of Carboplatin Injection based on estimates of GFR should be used in elderly patients to provide predictable plasma Carboplatin Injection AUCs and thereby minimize the risk of toxicity.
PREPARATION OF INTRAVENOUS SOLUTIONS
  • Carboplatin Injection 10 mg/mL is supplied as a Ready To Use (RTU) sterile solution in 5 mL, 15 mL, 45 mL or 60 mL vials. Total content of carboplatin per vial is described in following table:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • When further diluted, Carboplatin Injection solutions are stable for 8 hours at room temperature (25°C). Since no antibacterial preservative is contained in the formulation, it is recommended that Carboplatin Injection solutions be discarded 8 hours after dilution.
  • Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

Non-small cell lung cancer: stage IIIb or IV, recurrent, first-line
  • Gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) IV over 30 minutes on days 1 and 8 plus carboplatin (AUC 5.5) IV over 15 to 30 min on day 1 OR paclitaxel 225 mg/m(2) IV over 3 hours on day 1 plus carboplatin (AUC 6) IV over 15 to 30 minutes on day 1 OR plus gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) IV over 30 minutes on days 1 and 8 pluspaclitaxel 200 mg/m(2) IV over 3 hours on day 1; repeated every 21 days for 6 cycles or until unacceptable toxicity or disease progression was used in a phase 3 randomized trial
Non-small cell lung cancer, First-line in combination with paclitaxel and bevacizumab for advanced/metastatic non-squamous cell disease
  • Carboplatin (AUC of 6) IV, paclitaxel 200 mg/m(2) IV, and bevacizumab 15 mg/kg IV once on day 1 every 3 weeks for up to 6 cycles, then bevacizumab alone until disease progression has been studied in clinical trials

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

Cancer of unknown origin
  • CARBOPLATIN (AUC=6 IV day 1) repeated every 3 weeks.[1]
Carcinoma of cervix
  • Carboplatin 400 mg/m(2) (340 mg/m(2) if the patient had prior radiotherapy) was administered IV over 15 minutes and doses repeated every 4 weeks.[2]
Head and neck cancer
  • IV carboplatin 100 mg/m(2).[3]
Hodgkin's disease
  • carboplatin is used in combination with ifosfamide and etoposide for Hodgkin disease [4]
Malignant mesothelioma
  • Dosage
  • Carboplatin IV 150 mg/m(2)/day for 3 days.[5]
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • ICE regimen: etoposide 100 mg/m(2) IV bolus on days 1 to 3, carboplatin AUC 5 IV bolus on day 2 (MAX dose 800 mg), ifosfamide 5 g/m(2) admixed with mesna 5 g/m(2) via IV continuous infusion over 24 hours on day 2; repeat every 14 days for 3 cycles; filgrastim 5 mcg/kg/day on days 5 to 12 of cycle 1 and 2, and filgrastim 10 mcg/kg/day after cycle 3 until the end of leukapheresis[6]
Seminoma of testis, Stage I, adjuvant, monotherapy
  • AUC 7 IV for 1 course was used in a clinical trial[7]
Seminoma of testis, Stage I, adjuvant, monotherapy
  • AUC 7 IV every 21 days for 2 courses was used in high-risk patients (tumor larger than 4 cm or invasion of the rete testis) in a clinical trial[8]

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Contraindications

Warnings

WARNING
See full prescribing information for complete Boxed Warning.
  • Carboplatin injection should be administered under the supervision of a qualified physician experienced in the use of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Appropriate management of therapy and complications is possible only when adequate treatment facilities are readily available.
  • Bone marrow suppression is dose related and may be severe, resulting in infection and/or bleeding. Anemia may be cumulative and may require transfusion support. Vomiting is another frequent drug-related side effect.
  • Anaphylactic-like reactions to carboplatin have been reported and may occur within minutes of carboplatin administration. Epinephrine, corticosteroids, and antihistamines have been employed to alleviate symptoms.
  • Bone marrow suppression (leukopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia) is dose-dependent and is also the dose-limiting toxicity. Peripheral blood counts should be frequently monitored during carboplatin treatment and, when appropriate, until recovery is achieved. Median nadir occurs at day 21 in patients receiving single-agent carboplatin. In general, single intermittent courses of carboplatin should not be repeated until leukocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts have recovered.
  • Since anemia is cumulative, transfusions may be needed during treatment with carboplatin, particularly in patients receiving prolonged therapy.
  • Bone marrow suppression is increased in patients who have received prior therapy, especially regimens including cisplatin. Marrow suppression is also increased in patients with impaired kidney function. Initial carboplatin dosages in these patients should be appropriately reduced and blood counts should be carefully monitored between courses. The use of carboplatin in combination with other bone marrow suppressing therapies must be carefully managed with respect to dosage and timing in order to minimize additive effects.
  • Carboplatin has limited nephrotoxic potential, but concomitant treatment with aminoglycosides has resulted in increased renal and/or audiologic toxicity, and caution must be exercised when a patient receives both drugs. Clinically significant hearing loss has been reported to occur in pediatric patients when carboplatin was administered at higher than recommended doses in combination with other ototoxic agents.
  • Carboplatin can induce emesis, which can be more severe in patients previously receiving emetogenic therapy. The incidence and intensity of emesis have been reduced by using premedication with antiemetics. Although no conclusive efficacy data exist with the following schedules of carboplatin, lengthening the duration of single intravenous administration to 24 hours or dividing the total dose over 5 consecutive daily pulse doses has resulted in reduced emesis.
  • Loss of vision, which can be complete for light and colors, has been reported after the use of carboplatin with doses higher than those recommended in the package insert. Vision appears to recover totally or to a significant extent within weeks of stopping these high doses.
  • As in the case of other platinum-coordination compounds, allergic reactions to carboplatin have been reported. These may occur within minutes of administration and should be managed with appropriate supportive therapy. There is increased risk of allergic reactions including anaphylaxis in patients previously exposed to platinum therapy.
  • High dosages of carboplatin (more than 4 times the recommended dose) have resulted in severe abnormalities of liver function tests.
  • Carboplatin injection may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Carboplatin has been shown to be embryotoxic and teratogenic in rats. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while receiving this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant.

Precautions

  • General
  • Needles or intravenous administration sets containing aluminum parts that may come in contact with Carboplatin injection should not be used for the preparation or administration of the drug. Aluminum can react with carboplatin causing precipitate formation and loss of potency.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Data are based on the experience of 393 patients with ovarian cancer (regardless of baseline status) who received initial combination therapy with carboplatin and cyclophosphamide in two randomized controlled studies conducted by SWOG and NCIC .
  • Combination with cyclophosphamide as well as duration of treatment may be responsible for the differences that can be noted in the adverse experience table.
  • Data are based on the experience of 553 patients with previously treated ovarian carcinoma (regardless of baseline status) who received single-agent carboplatin
  • In the narrative section that follows, the incidences of adverse events are based on data from 1,893 patients with various types of tumors who received carboplatin as single-agent therapy.
  • Hematologic Toxicity
  • Bone marrow suppression is the dose-limiting toxicity of carboplatin. :*Thrombocytopenia with platelet counts below 50,000/mm3 occurs in 25% of the patients (35% of pretreated ovarian cancer patients); neutropenia with granulocyte counts below 1,000/mm3 occurs in 16% of the patients (21% of pretreated ovarian cancer patients); leukopenia with WBC counts below 2,000/mm3 occurs in 15% of the patients (26% of pretreated ovarian cancer patients). The nadir usually occurs about day 21 in patients receiving single-agent therapy. By day 28, 90% of patients have platelet counts above 100,000/mm3; 74% have neutrophil counts above 2,000/mm3; 67% have leukocyte counts above 4,000/mm3.
  • Marrow suppression is usually more severe in patients with impaired kidney function. Patients with poor performance status have also experienced a higher incidence of severe leukopenia and thrombocytopenia.
  • The hematologic effects, although usually reversible, have resulted in infectious or hemorrhagic complications in 5% of the patients treated with carboplatin, with drug-related death occurring in less than 1% of the patients. Fever has also been reported in patients with neutropenia.
  • Anemia with hemoglobin less than 11 g/dL has been observed in 71% of the patients who started therapy with a baseline above that value. The incidence of anemia increases with increasing exposure to carboplatin. Transfusions have been administered to 26% of the patients treated with carboplatin (44% of previously treated ovarian cancer patients).
  • Bone marrow depression may be more severe when carboplatin is combined with other bone marrow suppressing drugs or with radiotherapy.
  • Gastrointestinal Toxicity
  • Vomiting occurs in 65% of the patients (81% of previously treated ovarian cancer patients) and in about one-third of these patients it is severe. Carboplatin, as a single agent or in combination, is significantly less emetogenic than cisplatin; however, patients previously treated with emetogenic agents, especially cisplatin, appear to be more prone to vomiting. Nausea alone occurs in an additional 10 to 15% of patients. Both nausea and vomiting usually cease within 24 hours of treatment and are often responsive to antiemetic measures. Although no conclusive efficacy data exist with the following schedules, prolonged administration of carboplatin, either by continuous 24-hour infusion or by daily pulse doses given for 5 consecutive days, was associated with less severe vomiting than the single-dose intermittent schedule. Emesis was increased when carboplatin was used in combination with other emetogenic compounds. Other gastrointestinal effects observed frequently were pain, in 17% of the patients; diarrhea, in 6%; and constipation, also in 6%.
  • Neurologic Toxicity
  • Peripheral neuropathies have been observed in 4% of the patients receiving carboplatin (6% of pretreated ovarian cancer patients) with mild paresthesias occurring most frequently. Carboplatin therapy produces significantly fewer and less severe neurologic side effects than does therapy with cisplatin. However, patients older than 65 years and/or previously treated with cisplatin appear to have an increased risk (10%) for peripheral neuropathies. In 70% of the patients with pre-existing cisplatin-induced peripheral neurotoxicity, there was no worsening of symptoms during therapy with carboplatin. Clinical ototoxicity and other sensory abnormalities such as visual disturbances and change in taste have been reported in only 1% of the patients. Central nervous system symptoms have been reported in 5% of the patients and appear to be most often related to the use of antiemetics.
  • Although the overall incidence of peripheral neurologic side effects induced by carboplatin is low, prolonged treatment, particularly in cisplatin pretreated patients, may result in cumulative neurotoxicity.
  • Nephrotoxicity
  • Development of abnormal renal function test results is uncommon, despite the fact that carboplatin, unlike cisplatin, has usually been administered without high-volume fluid hydration and/or forced diuresis. The incidences of abnormal renal function tests reported are 6% for serum creatinine and 14% for blood urea nitrogen (10% and 22%, respectively, in pretreated ovarian cancer patients). Most of these reported abnormalities have been mild and about one-half of them were reversible.
  • Creatinine clearance has proven to be the most sensitive measure of kidney function in patients receiving carboplatin, and it appears to be the most useful test for correlating drug clearance and bone marrow suppression. Twenty-seven percent of the patients who had a baseline value of 60 mL/min or more demonstrated a reduction below this value during carboplatin therapy.
  • Hepatic Toxicity
  • The incidences of abnormal liver function tests in patients with normal baseline values were reported as follows:total bilirubin, 5%; SGOT, 15%; and alkaline phosphatase, 24%; (5%, 19%, and 37%, respectively, in pretreated ovarian cancer patients). These abnormalities have generally been mild and reversible in about one-half of the cases, although the role of metastatic tumor in the liver may complicate the assessment in many patients. In a limited series of patients receiving very high dosages of carboplatin and autologous bone marrow transplantation, severe abnormalities of liver function tests were reported.
  • Electrolyte Changes
  • The incidences of abnormally decreased serum electrolyte values reported were as follows: sodium, 29%; potassium, 20%; calcium, 22%; and magnesium, 29%; (47%, 28%, 31%, and 43%, respectively, in pretreated ovarian cancer patients). Electrolyte supplementation was not routinely administered concomitantly with carboplatin, and these electrolyte abnormalities were rarely associated with symptoms.
  • Allergic Reactions
  • Injection Site Reactions
  • Injection site reactions, including redness, swelling, and pain, have been reported during postmarketing surveillance. Necrosis associated with extravasation has also been reported.
  • Other Events
  • Pain and asthenia were the most frequently reported miscellaneous adverse effects; their relationship to the tumor and to anemia was likely. Alopecia was reported (3%). Cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, and mucosal side effects have occurred in 6% or less of the patients. Cardiovascular events (cardiac failure, embolism, cerebrovascular accidents) were fatal in less than 1% of the patients and did not appear to be related to chemotherapy. Cancer-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome has been reported rarely.

Postmarketing Experience

Drug Interactions

  • The renal effects of nephrotoxic compounds may be potentiated by carboplatin.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA): D

  • Pregnancy Category


Pregnancy Category (AUS):

  • Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category

There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Carboplatin in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Carboplatin during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

  • The carcinogenic potential of carboplatin has not been studied, but compounds with similar mechanisms of action and mutagenicity profiles have been reported to be carcinogenic. Carboplatin has been shown to be mutagenic both in vitro and in vivo. It has also been shown to be embryotoxic and teratogenic in rats receiving the drug during organogenesis. Secondary malignancies have been reported in association with multi-drug therapy.

Pediatric Use

  • Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established .

Geriatic Use

  • Of the 789 patients in initial treatment combination therapy studies (NCIC and SWOG), 395 patients were treated with carboplatin in combination with cyclophosphamide. Of these, 141 were over 65 years of age and 22 were 75 years or older. In these trials, age was not a prognostic factor for survival. In terms of safety, elderly patients treated with carboplatin were more likely to develop severe thrombocytopenia than younger patients. In a combined database of 1,942 patients (414 were ≥65 years of age) that received single-agent carboplatin for different tumor types, a similar incidence of adverse events was seen in patients 65 years and older and in patients less than 65. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Because renal function is often decreased in the elderly, renal function should be considered in the selection of carboplatin dosage .

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Carboplatin with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Carboplatin with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Carboplatin in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Carboplatin in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Carboplatin in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Carboplatin in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Intravenous

Monitoring

  • Peripheral blood counts should be frequently monitored during carboplatin treatment and, when appropriate, until recovery is achieved.

IV Compatibility

  • When prepared as directed, carboplatin aqueous solutions are stable for 8 hours at room temperature (25° C). Since no antibacterial preservative is contained in the formulation, it is recommended that carboplatin aqueous solutions be discarded 8 hours after dilution.

Overdosage

Acute Overdose

Management

  • There is no known antidote for Carboplatin injection overdosage.

Pharmacology

Carboplatin00.png
Carboplatin000.png
Carboplatin
Systematic (IUPAC) name
cis-diammine(cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylate-O,O')platinum(II)
Identifiers
CAS number 41575-94-4
ATC code L01XA02
PubChem 498142
DrugBank DB00958
Chemical data
Formula C6H12N2O4Pt 
Mol. mass 371.249 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability complete
Protein binding Very low
Metabolism  ?
Half life 1.1-2 hours
Excretion renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

D(US)

Legal status

Rx Only

Routes Intravenous

Mechanism of Action

  • Carboplatin, like cisplatin, produces predominantly interstrand DNA cross-links rather than DNA-protein cross-links. This effect is apparently cell-cycle nonspecific. The aquation of carboplatin, which is thought to produce the active species, occurs at a slower rate than in the case of cisplatin. Despite this difference, it appears that both carboplatin and cisplatin induce equal numbers of drug-DNA cross-links, causing equivalent lesions and biological effects. The differences in potencies for carboplatin and cisplatin appear to be directly related to the difference in aquation rates.

Structure

  • Carboplatin Injection is for intravenous administration. Each mL contains equivalent to 10 mg of carboplatin in Water for Injection. No other preservatives or additives are present. Carboplatin injection is supplied as a sterile, pyrogen-free, 10 mg/mL aqueous solution of carboplatin. Carboplatin is a platinum coordination compound. The chemical name for carboplatin is platinum, diammine [1,1-cyclobutanedicarboxylato(2-)-O,O’]-,(SP-4-2), and carboplatin has the following structural formula:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Carboplatin is a crystalline powder with the molecular formula of C6H12N2O4Pt and a molecular weight of 371.25. It is soluble in water at a rate of approximately 14 mg/mL, and the pH of a 1% solution is 5-7. It is sparingly soluble in water, very slightly soluble in acetone and in alcohol.

Pharmacodynamics

There is limited information regarding Pharmacodynamics of Carboplatin in the drug label.

Pharmacokinetics

  • In patients with creatinine clearances of about 60 mL/min or greater, plasma levels of intact carboplatin decay in a biphasic manner after a 30-minute intravenous infusion of 300 mg/m2 to 500 mg/m2 of carboplatin. The initial plasma half-life (alpha) was found to be 1.1 to 2 hours (n=6), and the postdistribution plasma half-life (beta) was found to be 2.6 to 5.9 hours (n=6). The total body clearance, apparent volume of distribution and mean residence time for carboplatin are 4.4 L/hour, 16 L and 3.5 hours, respectively. The Cmax values and areas under the plasma concentration versus time curves from 0 to infinity (AUC inf) increase linearly with dose, although the increase was slightly more than dose proportional. Carboplatin, therefore, exhibits linear pharmacokinetics over the dosing range studied (300 mg/m2 to 500 mg/m2).
  • Carboplatin is not bound to plasma proteins. No significant quantities of protein-free, ultrafilterable platinum-containing species other than carboplatin are present in plasma. However, platinum from carboplatin becomes irreversibly bound to plasma proteins and is slowly eliminated with a minimum half-life of 5 days.
  • The major route of elimination of carboplatin is renal excretion. Patients with creatinine clearances of approximately 60 mL/min or greater excrete 65% of the dose in the urine within 12 hours and 71% of the dose within 24 hours. All of the platinum in the 24-hour urine is present as carboplatin. Only 3% to 5% of the administered platinum is excreted in the urine between 24 and 96 hours. There are insufficient data to determine whether biliary excretion occurs.
  • In patients with creatinine clearances below 60 mL/min the total body and renal clearances of carboplatin decrease as the creatinine clearance decreases. Carboplatin dosages should therefore be reduced in these patients .
  • The primary determinant of carboplatin clearance is glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and this parameter of renal function is often decreased in elderly patients. Dosing formulas incorporating estimates of GFR to provide predictable carboplatin plasma AUCs should be used in elderly patients to minimize the risk of toxicity.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
  • The carcinogenic potential of carboplatin has not been studied, but compounds with similar mechanisms of action and mutagenicity profiles have been reported to be carcinogenic. Carboplatin has been shown to be mutagenic both in vitro and in vivo. It has also been shown to be embryotoxic and teratogenic in rats receiving the drug during organogenesis. Secondary malignancies have been reported in association with multi-drug therapy.

Clinical Studies

Use with Cyclophosphamide for Initial Treatment of Ovarian Cancer
  • In two prospectively randomized, controlled studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute of Canada, Clinical Trials Group (NCIC) and the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG), 789 chemotherapy naive patients with advanced ovarian cancer were treated with carboplatin or cisplatin, both in combination with cyclophosphamide every 28 days for 6 courses before surgical reevaluation. The following results were obtained from both studies:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Comparative Toxicity
  • The pattern of toxicity exerted by the carboplatin-containing regimen was significantly different from that of the cisplatin-containing combinations. Differences between the two studies may be explained by different cisplatin dosages and by different supportive care.
  • The carboplatin-containing regimen induced significantly more thrombocytopenia and, in one study, significantly more leukopenia and more need for transfusional support. The cisplatin-containing regimen produced significantly more anemia in one study. However, no significant differences occurred in incidences of infections and hemorrhagic episodes.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Use as a Single Agent for Secondary Treatment of Advanced Ovarian Cancer
  • In two prospective, randomized controlled studies in patients with advanced ovarian cancer previously treated with chemotherapy, carboplatin achieved 6 clinical complete responses in 47 patients. The duration of these responses ranged from 45 to 71 +weeks.

How Supplied

  • Carboplatin injection
  • NDC 67457-491-54 50 mg/5 mL aqueous solution in multidose vials (with white flip-off seals), individually cartoned.
  • NDC 67457-492-15 150 mg/15 mL aqueous solution in multidose vials (with white flip-off seals), individually cartoned.
  • NDC 67457-493-46 450 mg/45 mL aqueous solution in multidose vials (with white flip-off seals), individually cartoned.
  • NDC 67457-494-61 600 mg/60 mL aqueous solution in multidose vials (with blue flip-off seals), individually cartoned.
  • Storage
  • Unopened vials of carboplatin injection are stable to the date indicated on the package when stored at 20° - 25° C (68° to 77° F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light.
  • Carboplatin injection multidose vials maintain microbial, chemical, and physical stability for up to 14 days at 25° C following multiple needle entries.
  • Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. Solutions for infusion should be discarded 8 hours after preparation.
  • Handling and Disposal
  • Caution should be exercised in handling and preparing carboplatin injection. Several guidelines on this subject have been published.1-4
  • To minimize the risk of dermal exposure, always wear impervious gloves when handling vials containing carboplatin injection. If carboplatin injection contacts the skin, immediately wash the skin thoroughly with soap and water. If carboplatin injection contacts mucous membranes, the membranes should be flushed immediately and thoroughly with water. More information is available in the references listed below.

Storage

There is limited information regarding Carboplatin Storage in the drug label.

Images

Drug Images

Package and Label Display Panel

Patient Counseling Information

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Precautions with Alcohol

  • Alcohol-Carboplatin interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

  • Paraplatin®
  • Paraplatin NovaPlus®

Look-Alike Drug Names

  • CARBOplatin® — CISplatin®[9]

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. Greco FA, Gray J, Burris HA, Erland JB, Morrissey LH, Hainsworth JD (2001). "Taxane-based chemotherapy for patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site.". Cancer J. 7 (3): 203–12. PMID 11419028. 
  2. Arseneau J, Blessing JA, Stehman FB, McGehee R (1986). "A phase II study of carboplatin in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study).". Invest New Drugs. 4 (2): 187–91. PMID 3525449. 
  3. Nishioka T, Shirato H, Fukuda S, Arimoto T, Kamada T, Furuta Y; et al. (1999). "A phase II study of concomitant chemoradiotherapy for laryngeal carcinoma using carboplatin.". Oncology. 56 (1): 36–42. PMID 9885375. 
  4. Mor-Joseph S, Anteby SO, Granat M, Brzezinsky A, Evron S (1985). "Recurrent molar pregnancies associated with clomiphene citrate and human gonadotropins.". Am J Obstet Gynecol. 151 (8): 1085–6. PMID 3920913. 
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