Calcium channel

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


Overview

A Calcium channel is an ion channel which displays selective permeabiltiy to calcium ions. It is sometimes synonymous as voltage-dependent calcium channel, although there are also ligand-gated calcium channels.

Comparison tables

The following tables explain gating, gene, location and function of different types of calcium channels, both voltage and ligand-gated.

Voltage-gated

Type Gated by Protein Gene Location Function
L-type high voltage Cav1.1
Cav1.2
Cav1.3
Cav1.4
CACNA1S
CACNA1C
CACNA1D
CACNA1F
Skeletal muscle, bone (osteoblasts), ventricular myocytes**, dendrites and dendritic spines of cortical neurones SMC and cardiac muscle contraction [1]. Responsible for prolonged action potential in cardiac muscle.
P-type/Q-type high voltage Cav2.1 CACNA1A Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum / Cerebellar granule cells neurotransmitter release [1]
N-type high voltage Cav2.2 CACNA1B Throughout the brain neurotransmitter release [1]
R-type intermediate voltage Cav2.3 CACNA1E Cerebellar granule cells, other neurons  ?[1]
T-type low voltage Cav3.1
Cav3.2
Cav3.3
CACNA1G
CACNA1H
CACNA1I
neurons, cells that have pacemaker activity, bone (osteocytes) Regular sinus rhythm[1]

Ligand-gated

Type Gated by Gene Location Function
IP3 receptor IP3 ER/SR Releases calcium from ER/SR in response to IP3 by e.g. GPCRs [1]
Ryanodine receptor dihydropyridine receptors in T-tubules ER/SR Calcium-induced calcium release in myocytes [1]
Two-pore channel
Cation channels of sperm
store-operated channels indirectly by ER/SR depletion of calcium[1] plasma membrane

Pharmacology

Calcium channel blockers are used to treat hypertension.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Rang, H. P. (2003). Pharmacology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443-07145-4.  Page 53
  2. Walter F., PhD. Boron. Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2328-3.  Page 479

External links


de:Calciumkanal

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