CC chemokine receptors

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CCR1
Identifiers
SymbolCCR1
Entrez1230
HUGO1602
OMIM601159
RefSeqNM_001295
UniProtP32246
Other data
LocusChr. 3 p21
CCR2
Identifiers
SymbolCCR2
Entrez1231
HUGO1603
OMIM601268
PDB1KAD
RefSeqNM_000647
UniProtP41597
Other data
LocusChr. 3 p21
CCR3
Identifiers
SymbolCCR3
Entrez1232
HUGO1604
OMIM601268
RefSeqNM_001837
UniProtP51677
Other data
LocusChr. 3 p21
CCR4
Identifiers
SymbolCCR4
Entrez1233
HUGO1605
OMIM604836
RefSeqNM_005508
UniProtP51679
Other data
LocusChr. 3 p24
CCR5
Identifiers
SymbolCCR5
Entrez1234
HUGO1606
OMIM601373
PDB1ND8
RefSeqNM_000579
UniProtP51681
Other data
LocusChr. 3 p21
CCR6
Identifiers
SymbolCCR6
Entrez1235
HUGO1607
OMIM601835
RefSeqNM_004367
UniProtP51684
Other data
LocusChr. 6 q27
CCR7
Identifiers
SymbolCCR7
Entrez1236
HUGO1608
OMIM600242
RefSeqNM_001838
UniProtP32248
Other data
LocusChr. 17 q12-q21.2
CCR8
Identifiers
SymbolCCR8
Entrez1237
HUGO1609
OMIM601834
RefSeqNM_005201
UniProtP51685
Other data
LocusChr. 3 p22
CCR9
Identifiers
SymbolCCR9
Entrez10803
HUGO1610
OMIM604738
RefSeqNM_031200
UniProtP51686
Other data
LocusChr. 3 p21
CCR10
Identifiers
SymbolCCR10
Entrez2826
HUGO4474
OMIM600240
RefSeqNM_016602
UniProtP46092
Other data
LocusChr. 17 17q21.1-q21

CC chemokine receptors (or beta chemokine receptors) are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CC chemokine family. They represent one subfamily of chemokine receptors, a large family of G protein-linked receptors that are known as seven transmembrane (7-TM) proteins since they span the cell membrane seven times. To date, ten true members of the CC chemokine receptor subfamily have been described. These are named CCR1 to CCR10 according to the IUIS/WHO Subcommittee on Chemokine Nomenclature.

Mechanism

The CC chemokine receptors all work by activating the G protein Gi.[1]

Types

Overview table

Receptor Ligands
CCR1 CCL4, CCL5, CCL6, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL23
CCR2 CCL2, CCL8, CCL16
CCR3 CCL11, CCL26, CCL7, CCL13, CCL15, CCL24, CCL5, CCL28, CCL18
CCR4 CCL3, CCL5, CCL17, CCL22
CCR5 CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14, CCL16
CCR6 CCL20
CCR7 CCL19, CCL21
CCR8 CCL1, CCL16
CCR9 CCL25
CCR10 CCL27, CCL28
CCR11 CCL19, CCL21, CCL25

CCR1

CCR1 was the first CC chemokine receptor identified and binds multiple inflammatory/inducible (see inducible gene) CC chemokines (including CCL4, CCL5, CCL6, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16 and CCL23).[2][3][4][5] In humans, this receptor can be found on peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes. There is some suggestion that this chemokine receptor is restricted to memory T-cells within the lymphocyte pool. This receptor is also designated cluster of differentiation marker CD191.

CCR2

CCR2 can interact with CCL2, CCL8 and CCL16 and has been identified on the surface of monocytes, activated memory T cells, B cells, and basophils in humans, and also in peritoneal macrophages in mice.[4][6] CCR2 is also designated CD192.

CCR3

CCR3 is a receptor for multiple inflammatory/inducible CC chemokines, including CCL11, CCL26, CCL7, CCL13, CCL15, CCL24 and CCL5 that attract eosinophils, and CCL28 that attracts B and T lymphocytes to mucosal tissues. [3][7][8][9][10] It is most highly expressed in both eosinophils and basophils, but can also be found in Th1 and Th2 cells and airway epithelial cells. Thus CCR3 plays a role in allergic reactions. CCR3 is also known as CD193.

CCR4

CCR4 is expressed on Th2 T lymphocytes and is up-regulated by T cell receptor activation. However, some reports suggest a role for this receptor also in trafficking of dendritic cells. The CC chemokines CCL3, CCL5, CCL17 and CCL22 signal through this receptor.[11][12]

CCR5

CCR5 is expressed on several cell types including peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells, CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells and certain activated/memory Th1 lymphocytes. This receptor is well defined as a major coreceptor implicated in susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and disease. This receptor has several CC chemokine ligands including CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CCL13, CCL14 and CCL16.[4][6][13][14]

CCR6

CCR6, a receptor for CCL20, is expressed on unactivated memory T-cells and some dendritic cells. CCR6 is also expressed on Th17 cells.[15] CCR6 is down-regulated in activated T-cells.[16]

CCR7

CCR7 is a highly important receptor with a role in trafficking of B and T lymphocytes and dendritic cells to and across high endothelial venules and positioning those cells correctly in T cell zones of secondary lymphoid organs. Its ligands include the related chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, (previously called ELC and SLC).[17]

CCR8

CCR8 is associated with Th2 lymphocytes and is therefore found predominantly in the thymus (in humans) although some expression can be found in the brain, spleen, lymph node, and monocytes at the nucleotide level. The ligands for this receptor are CCL1 and CCL16.[18]

CCR9

CCR9 was previously called orphan receptor GPR 9-6 and is very highly expressed in thymus (on both immature and mature T-cells) while low in lymph nodes and spleen. CCR9 is also abundant in the gut, with its expression associated with T cells of the intestine. The specific ligand of this receptor is CCL25.[19] To note, the chemokine binding protein D6 had previously been named CCR9, but this molecule is a scavenger receptor not a true (signaling) chemokine receptor.

CCR10

CCR10 is receptor for CCL27 and CCL28 that was originally called orphan receptor GPR2.[9][20][21][22] CCR10 has been implicated in inflammation of the skin, and has been shown to recruit regulatory T cells (Tregs) to mucosal layers.

CCR11

This molecule was originally designated CCR11 due to its ability to bind several CC chemokines (including CCL19, CCL21 and CCL25) and its structural similarity to chemokine receptors. However, due to the inability of this molecule (also known as CCRL1 and CCX CKR) to generate a signal following ligand interaction, it has been suggested that it is a scavenger receptor for chemokines and not a bona fide chemokine receptor. Thus CCRL1 should not be called CCR11 under the guidelines of the IUIS/WHO Subcommittee on Chemokine Nomenclature.

References

  1. senselab
  2. Ma et al. The C10/CCL6 chemokine and CCR1 play critical roles in the pathogenesis of IL-13-induced inflammation and remodeling. J Immunol. 2004 Feb 1;172(3):1872-81.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Youn et al. Molecular cloning of leukotactin-1: a novel human beta-chemokine, a chemoattractant for neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes, and a potent agonist at CC chemokine receptors 1 and 3. J. Immun. 159: 5201-5205, 1997.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Nomiyama et al. Human CC chemokine liver-expressed chemokine/CCL16 is a functional ligand for CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5, and constitutively expressed by hepatocytes. Int Immunol. 2001 Aug;13(8):1021-9.
  5. Berahovich et al. Proteolytic Activation of Alternative CCR1 Ligands in Inflammation. J. Immunol. 174:7341-7351, 2005.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Ogilvie et al. Eotaxin is a natural antagonist for CCR2 and an agonist for CCR5. Blood. 2001, 97:1920-4
  7. Kitaura et al. Molecular cloning of human eotaxin, an eosinophil-selective CC chemokine, and identification of a specific eosinophil eotaxin receptor, CC chemokine receptor 3. J. Biol. Chem. 1996, 271:7725-7730.
  8. Kitaura et al. Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine (Eotaxin-3) that is a functional ligand of CC chemokine receptor 3. J. Biol. Chem. 274:27975-27980, 1999.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Pan et al. 2000, A novel chemokine ligand for CCR10 and CCR3 expressed by epithelial cells in mucosal tissues, J. Immunol. 165: 2943–2949.
  10. White et al. Cloning and functional characterization of a novel human CC chemokine that binds to the CCR3 receptor and activates human eosinophils. J. Leukoc. Biol. 62:667-675, 1997.
  11. Imai et al. The T cell-directed CC chemokine TARC is a highly specific biological ligand for CC chemokine receptor 4. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 15036-15042, 1997.
  12. Imai et al. Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4. J. Biol. Chem. 273:1764-1768 (1998).
  13. Gong et al., Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-2 Activates CCR5 and Blocks CD4/CCR5-mediated HIV-1 Entry/Replication. J Biol Chem, 1998, 273,4289-4292.
  14. Blanpain et al., CCR5 binds multiple CC-chemokines: MCP-3 acts as a natural antagonist. Blood. 1999, 94:1899-905.
  15. Acosta-Rodriguez et al., Surface phenotype and antigenic specificity of human interleukin 17–producing T helper memory cells. Nat. Immunology, 2007, 6, 639-646.
  16. Baba et al., Identification of CCR6, the specific receptor for a novel lymphocyte-directed CC chemokine LARC. J Biol Chem. 1997, 272:14893-8.
  17. Yoshida et al. Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific ligand for EBI1, CCR7. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 13803-13809, 1997.
  18. Roos et al., Identification of CCR8, the receptor for the human CC chemokine I-309. J Biol Chem 1997 Vol 272, 17251–4.
  19. Zaballos et al., Identification of the orphan chemokine receptor GPR-9-6 as CCR9, the receptor for the chemokine TECK. J. Immunol., 1999, 162:5671-5675.
  20. Gosling et al., Cutting edge: identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines including ELC, SLC, and TECK. J Immunol. 2000, 164:2851-6.
  21. Homey et al. The orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ILC). J. Immunol. 164:3465-3470, 2000.
  22. Wang et al. 2000, Identification of a novel chemokine (CCL28), which binds CCR10 (GPR2). J. Biol. Chem. 275: 22313–22323.

External links

  • "Chemokine Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology.



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