CCL19

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Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL19 gene.[1][2]

This gene is one of several CC cytokine genes clustered on the p-arm of chromosome 9. Cytokines are a family of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The CC cytokines are proteins characterized by two adjacent cysteines. The cytokine encoded by this gene may play a role in normal lymphocyte recirculation and homing. It also plays an important role in trafficking of T cells in thymus, and in T cell and B cell migration to secondary lymphoid organs. It specifically binds to chemokine receptor CCR7.[2]

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as EBI1 ligand chemokine (ELC) and macrophage inflammatory protein-3-beta (MIP-3-beta). CCL19 is expressed abundantly in thymus and lymph nodes, with moderate levels in trachea and colon and low levels in stomach, small intestine, lung, kidney and spleen.[3] The gene for CCL19 is located on human chromosome 9.[4] This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by binding to the chemokine receptor chemokine receptor CCR7.[3] It attracts certain cells of the immune system, including dendritic cells and antigen-engaged B cells,[5][6] CCR7+ central-memory T-Cells.[7]

References

  1. Yoshida R, Imai T, Hieshima K, Kusuda J, Baba M, Kitaura M, Nishimura M, Kakizaki M, Nomiyama H, Yoshie O (Jul 1997). "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1, CCR7". J Biol Chem. 272 (21): 13803–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.21.13803. PMID 9153236.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Entrez Gene: CCL19 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19".
  3. 3.0 3.1 Yoshida R, Imai T, Hieshima K, Kusuda J, Baba M, Kitaura M, Nishimura M, Kakizaki M, Nomiyama H, Yoshie O (1997). "Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1, CCR7". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (21): 13803–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.21.13803. PMID 9153236.
  4. Rossi DL, Vicari AP, Franz-Bacon K, McClanahan TK, Zlotnik A (1997). "Identification through bioinformatics of two new macrophage proinflammatory human chemokines: MIP-3alpha and MIP-3beta". J. Immunol. 158 (3): 1033–6. PMID 9013939.
  5. Robbiani DF, Finch RA, Jäger D, Muller WA, Sartorelli AC, Randolph GJ (2000). "The leukotriene C(4) transporter MRP1 regulates CCL19 (MIP-3beta, ELC)-dependent mobilization of dendritic cells to lymph nodes". Cell. 103 (5): 757–68. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)00179-3. PMID 11114332.
  6. Reif K, Ekland EH, Ohl L, Nakano H, Lipp M, Förster R, Cyster JG (2002). "Balanced responsiveness to chemoattractants from adjacent zones determines B-cell position". Nature. 416 (6876): 94–9. doi:10.1038/416094a. PMID 11882900.
  7. Bromley SK, Thomas SY, Luster AD (2005). "Chemokine receptor CCR7 guides T cell exit from peripheral tissues and entry into afferent lymphatics". Nat. Immunol. 6 (9): 895–901. doi:10.1038/ni1240. PMID 16116469.

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