Burkholderia cepacia complex

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Burkholderia cepacia complex
File:Burkholderia cepacia.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Beta Proteobacteria
Order: Burkholderiales
Family: Burkholderiaceae
Genus: Burkholderia
Species: B. cepacia complex
Binomial name
Burkholderia cepacia complex
(Palleroni and Holmes 1981)
Yabuuchi et al. 1993
Type species
ATCC 25416

CCUG 12691 and 13226
CFBP 2227
CIP 80.24
DSM 7288
HAMBI 1976
ICMP 5796
JCM 5964
LMG 1222
NBRC 14074
NCCB 76047
NCPPB 2993
NCTC 10743
NRRL B-14810

Synonyms

Pseudomonas cepacia Burkholder 1950
Pseudomonas multivorans Stanier et al. 1966
Pseudomonas cepacia (ex Burkholder 1950) Palleroni and Holmes 1981
Pseudomonas kingii Jonsson 1970

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List of terms related to Burkholderia cepacia complex

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), or simply Burkholderia cepacia is a group of catalase-producing, non-lactose-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria composed of at least nine different species, including B. cepacia, B. multivorans, B. cenocepacia, B. vietnamiensis, B. stabilis, B. ambifaria, B. dolosa, B. anthina, and B. pyrrocinia.[1] B. cepacia is an important human pathogen which most often causes pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals with underlying lung disease (such as cystic fibrosis or chronic granulomatous disease).[2]

Pathogenesis

BCC organisms are typically found in water and soil and can survive for prolonged periods in moist environments. Person-to-person spread has been documented; as a result, many hospitals, clinics, and camps for patients with cystic fibrosis have enacted strict isolation precautions for those infected with BCC. Infected individuals are often treated in a separate area than noninfected patients to limit spread, since BCC infection can lead to a rapid decline in lung function and result in death.

Diagnosis of BCC involves isolation of bacteria from sputum cultures. BCC organisms are naturally resistant to many common antibiotics including aminoglycosides and polymyxin B.[3] The bacteria is so hardy that it has been found to persist in betadine (a common topical antiseptic).[4] Treatment typically includes multiple antibiotics and may include ceftazidime, doxycycline, piperacillin, chloramphenicol, and co-trimoxazole.[3] In April 2007 Researchers from the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry at The University of Western Ontario, working with a group from Edinburgh, announced they had discovered a way to kill the the organism.[5]

History

B.cepacia was discovered by Walter Burkholder in 1949 as the culprit of onion skin rot, and first described as a human pathogen in the 1950s.[6] In the 1980s, it was first recognized in individuals with cystic fibrosis, and outbreaks were associated with a 35% death rate. Burkholderia cepacia has a large genome, containing twice the amount of genetic material as E. coli.

Gallery

Anti microbial regimen

  • Burkholderia cepacia complex[8]

References

  1. Lipuma J (2005). "Update on the Burkholderia cepacia complex". Curr Opin Pulm Med. 11 (6): 528–33. PMID 16217180.
  2. Mahenthiralingam E, Urban T, Goldberg J (2005). "The multifarious, multireplicon Burkholderia cepacia complex". Nat Rev Microbiol. 3 (2): 144–56. PMID 15643431.
  3. 3.0 3.1 McGowan J (2006). "Resistance in nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria: multidrug resistance to the maximum". Am J Infect Control. 34 (5 Suppl 1): S29–37, discussion S64-73. PMID 16813979.
  4. Anderson R, Vess R, Panlilio A, Favero M (1990). "Prolonged survival of Pseudomonas cepacia in commercially manufactured povidone-iodine". Appl Environ Microbiol. 56 (11): 3598–600. PMID 2268166.
  5. "Key Found to Kill Cystic Fibrosis Superbug". Innovations Report. April 25 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-26. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  6. Burkholder WH (1950). "Sour skin, a bacterial rot of onion bulbs". Phytopathology. 40: 115&ndash, 7.
  7. "Public Health Image Library (PHIL)".
  8. Bartlett, John (2012). Johns Hopkins ABX guide : diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning. ISBN 978-1449625580.

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