Breast cancer epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Assistant Editor(s)-In-Chief: Jack Khouri; Rim Halaby, M.D. [2] Mirdula Sharma, MBBS [3]

Overview

The prevalence of breast cancer is approximately 124.8 per 100,000 women per year. The number of deaths was 21.9 per 100,000 women per year, based on 2010-2012 data.

Epidemiology and Demographics

Incidence

The number of new cases of female breast cancer was 124.8 per 100,000 women per year. The number of deaths was 21.9 per 100,000 women per year. These rates are age-adjusted and based on 2008-2012 cases and deaths.

Prevalence

  • In 2012, there were an estimated 2,975,314 women living with female breast cancer in the United States.
  • Approximately 12.3 percent of women will be diagnosed with female breast cancer at some point during their lifetime, based on 2010-2012 data.
  • Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in women. (The most common form of cancer is non-invasive non-melanoma skin cancer; non-invasive cancers are generally easily cured, cause very few deaths, and are routinely excluded from cancer statistics.) Breast cancer comprises 22.9% of invasive cancers in women and 16% of all female cancers.[1]
  • In the United States, breast cancer is the third most common cause of cancer death (after lung cancer and colon cancer). In 2007, breast cancer caused approximately 40,910 deaths (7% of cancer deaths; almost 2% of all deaths) in the U.S.[2]
  • Among women in the U.S., breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second- most common cause of cancer death (after lung cancer). Women in the U.S. have a 1 in 8 lifetime chance of developing invasive breast cancer and a 1 in 33 chance of breast cancer causing their death.[3] A U.S. study conducted in 2005 by the Society for Women's Health Research indicated that breast cancer remains the most feared disease,[4] even though heart disease is a much more common cause of death among women.[5]
  • Since the 1970s, The number of cases has significantly increased, a phenomenon partly blamed on modern lifestyles in the Western world.[6][7] Because the breast is composed of identical tissues in males and females, breast cancer also occurs in males, although it is less common.[8]

Incidence

The incidence of breast cancer varies greatly around the world: it is lowest in less-developed countries and greatest in the more-developed countries. In the twelve world regions, the annual age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 women are as follows: in Eastern Asia, 18; South Central Asia, 22; sub-Saharan Africa, 22; South-Eastern Asia, 26; North Africa and Western Asia, 28; South and Central America, 42; Eastern Europe, 49; Southern Europe, 56; Northern Europe, 73; Oceania, 74; Western Europe, 78; and in North America, 90.[9]

Case Fatality Rate

  • The number of deaths was 21.9 per 100,000 women per year, based on 2010-2012 data.

Age

Invasive Breast Cancer

  • While the overall age-adjusted incidence of invasive breast cancer among males and females in the United States between 2007 and 2011 is 67.1 per 100,000, the age-adjusted incidence of invasive breast cancer by age category is:[10]
    • Under 65 years: 41.9 per 100,000
    • 65 and over: 241.6 per 100,000
  • Among females, only, the overall age-adjusted incidence of invasive breast cancer in the United States between 2007 and 2011 is 124.5 per 100,000, whereas the age-adjusted incidence of invasive breast cancer by age category is:[10]
    • Under 65 years: 81.7 per 100,000
    • 65 and over: 420.3 per 100,000
  • Shown below is an image depicting the incidence of breast cancer by age and race in the United States between 1975 and 2011.[10]

Incidence of breast cancer by age and race

In-Situ Breast Cancer

  • Among females only, the overall age-adjusted incidence of in-situ breast cancer in the United States between 2007 and 2011 is 31.7 per 100,000, whereas the age-adjusted incidence of invasive breast cancer by age category is:[10]
    • Under 65 years: 23.6 per 100,000
    • 65 and over: 87.7 per 100,000
  • Shown below is an image depicting the incidence of in-situ versus invasive breast cancer in females in the United States between 1975 and 2011.

Incidence of in-situ versus invasive breast cancer by age

Gender

  • In the United States, the age-adjusted prevalence of invasive breast cancer by gender in 2011 is:[10]
    • In males: 8.3 per 100,000
    • In females: 1222.3 per 100,000

Sex

Men have a lower risk of developing breast cancer (approximately 1.08 per 100,000 men per year), however, this risk appears to be rising.[11]

Race

  • Shown below is a table depicting the age-adjusted prevalence of invasive breast cancer by race in females and males in 2011 in the United States.[10]
All Races White Black Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic
Age-adjusted prevalence 666.3 per 100,000 700.1 per 100,000 592.9 per 100,000 510.9 per 100,000 460.5 per 100,000
  • Shown below is a table depicting the age-adjusted prevalence of invasive breast cancer by race in females in in 2011 in the United States.[10]
All Races White Black Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic
Age-adjusted prevalence 1222.3 per 100,000 1300.2 per 100,000 1026.1 per 100,000 916 per 100,000 835.9 per 100,000
  • Shown below is an image depicting the incidence of breast cancer by race in the United States between 1975 and 2011.[10]

The incidence of breast cancer by race in the United States between 1975 and 2011

API: Asian/Pacific Islander; AI/AN: American Indian/ Alaska Native

Developing Countries

"Breast cancer in less developed countries, such as those in South America, is a major public health issue. It is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women in countries such as Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. The expected numbers of new cases and deaths due to breast cancer in South America for the year 2001 are approximately 70,000 and 30,000, respectively."[12] However, because of a lack of funding and resources, treatment is not always available to those suffering with breast cancer.

References

  1. "Breast cancer: prevention and control". World Health Organization. 
  2. American Cancer Society (2007). "Cancer Facts & Figures 2007" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  3. American Cancer Society (2006). "What Are the Key Statistics for Breast Cancer?". Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  4. "Women's Fear of Heart Disease Has Almost Doubled in Three Years, But Breast Cancer Remains Most Feared Disease" (Press release). Society for Women's Health Research. 2005-07-07. Retrieved 2007-10-15. 
  5. "Leading Causes of Death for American Women 2004" (PDF). National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Retrieved 2007-10-15. 
  6. Laurance, Jeremy (2006-09-29). "Breast cancer cases rise 80% since Seventies". The Independent. Retrieved 2006-10-09. 
  7. "Breast Cancer: Statistics on Incidence, Survival, and Screening". Imaginis Corporation. 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-09. 
  8. "Male Breast Cancer Treatment - National Cancer Institute". National Cancer Institute. 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-16. 
  9. Stewart B. W. and Kleihues P. (Eds): World Cancer Report. IARCPress. Lyon 2003 Archive copy at the Internet Archive Wayback Machine
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Garshell J, Miller D, Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z,Mariotto A, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2011, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2011/, based on November 2013 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2014.
  11. Giordano, Sharon H (May 2004). "Breast carcinoma in men". Cancer. American Cancer Society. 101 (1): 51–57. 
  12. (Schwartzmann, 2001, p 118)

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