Bladder cancer historical perspective

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Farima Kahe M.D. [2]


Association between bladder cancer and environmental carcinogens is first discovered in 1895. First cystectomy is performed as a treatment for bladder cancer in in 1877. Radium is first used as a treatment of bladder tumors in 1903. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy including methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MVAC) is first described in 1985. FDA approved the use of live bacterium, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for treatment and prevent the recurrence of superficial tumors in 1990.

Historical Perspective


  • Cystoscope was first discovered by Maximilian Nitze, a German urologist, in 1877.[1]
  • Association between bladder cancer and environmental carcinogens is first discovered in 1895.
  • Urine cytology is first described in 1945.[2]
  • Micropapillary bladder cancer is first described in 1982.[3]
  • Approximately 356,000 new bladder cancer cases of bladder cancer are reported in 2002 worldwide.[4]

Landmark Events in the Development of Treatment Strategies


  1. Wood JW, Casiano RR (2012). "Inverted papillomas and benign nonneoplastic lesions of the nasal cavity". Am J Rhinol Allergy. 26 (2): 157–63. doi:10.2500/ajra.2012.26.3732. PMC 3906506. PMID 22487294.
  2. Griffiths, T. R. L. (2013). "Current perspectives in bladder cancer management". International Journal of Clinical Practice. 67 (5): 435–448. doi:10.1111/ijcp.12075. ISSN 1368-5031.
  3. Heudel, Pierre; El Karak, Fadi; Ismaili, Nabil; Droz, Jean-Pierre; Flechon, Aude (2009). "Micropapillary bladder cancer: a review of Léon Bérard Cancer Center experience". BMC Urology. 9 (1). doi:10.1186/1471-2490-9-5. ISSN 1471-2490.
  4. Ploeg M, Aben KK, Kiemeney LA (June 2009). "The present and future burden of urinary bladder cancer in the world". World J Urol. 27 (3): 289–93. doi:10.1007/s00345-009-0383-3. PMC 2694323. PMID 19219610.
  5. LENZ M, CAHILL GF (October 1947). "The treatment of cancer of the bladder by radium needles". Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther. 58 (4): 486–92. PMID 20273482.
  6. Balar A, Bajorin DF, Milowsky MI (June 2011). "Management of invasive bladder cancer in patients who are not candidates for or decline cystectomy". Ther Adv Urol. 3 (3): 107–17. doi:10.1177/1756287211407543. PMC 3159398. PMID 21904567.
  7. Sagaster P, Flamm J, Flamm M, Mayer A, Donner G, Oberleitner S, Havelec L, Lepsinger L, Ludwig H (July 1996). "Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (MVAC) in locally invasive bladder cancer". Eur. J. Cancer. 32A (8): 1320–4. PMID 8869093.
  8. Porten SP, Leapman MS, Greene KL (2015). "Intravesical chemotherapy in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer". Indian J Urol. 31 (4): 297–303. doi:10.4103/0970-1591.166446. PMC 4626913. PMID 26604440.
  9. Askeland EJ, Newton MR, O'Donnell MA, Luo Y (2012). "Bladder Cancer Immunotherapy: BCG and Beyond". Adv Urol. 2012: 181987. doi:10.1155/2012/181987. PMC 3388311. PMID 22778725.
  10. Als AB, Sengelov L, Von Der Maase H (2008). "Gemcitabine and cisplatin in locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer; 3- or 4-week schedule?". Acta Oncol. 47 (1): 110–9. doi:10.1080/02841860701499382. PMID 17851853.