Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation)

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Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation)
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Vignesh Ponnusamy, M.B.B.S. [2]

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Overview

Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation) is a corticosteroid that is FDA approved for the treatment of asthma. Common adverse reactions include headache, pharyngitis, oral symptoms, and sinusitis.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Asthma
  • Maintenance Treatment of Asthma

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation) in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

Graft versus host disease, Gastrointestinal, as systemic steroid-sparing therapy
  • Oral Beclometasone dipropionate 2 mg four times daily.
Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Beclomethasone 3 milligrams (mg) in 60 milliliters (mL) administered as an enema at bedtime for 4 weeks.
Occupational Asthma
  • Inhaled beclomethasone 1000 micrograms (mcg) daily.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

Asthma
  • Maintenance Treatment of Asthma

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation) in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation) in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

  • QVAR is contraindicated in the primary treatment of status asthmaticus or other acute episodes of asthma where intensive measures are required.
  • Hypersensitivity
  • QVAR is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to beclomethasone dipropionate or any of the ingredients in QVAR.

Warnings

Precautions

  • Local Effects
  • Localized infections with Candida albicans have occurred in the mouth and pharynx in some patients receiving QVAR. If oropharyngeal candidiasis develops, it should be treated with appropriate local or systemic (i.e., oral) antifungal therapy while still continuing with QVAR therapy, but at times therapy with QVAR may need to be temporarily interrupted under close medical supervision. Rinsing the mouth after inhalation is advised.
  • Deterioration of Asthma and Acute Episodes
  • QVAR is not indicated for the relief of acute symptoms, i.e., as rescue therapy for the treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm. An inhaled, short-acting beta-2 agonist, not QVAR, should be used to relieve acute symptoms such as shortness of breath. Instruct patients to contact their physician immediately if episodes of asthma that are not responsive to bronchodilators occur during the course of treatment with QVAR. During such episodes, patients may require therapy with oral corticosteroids.
  • Transferring Patients from Systemic Corticosteroid Therapy
  • Particular care is needed in patients who are transferred from systemically active corticosteroids to QVAR because deaths due to adrenal insufficiency have occurred in asthmatic patients during and after transfer from systemic corticosteroids to less systemically available inhaled corticosteroids. After withdrawal from systemic corticosteroids, a number of months are required for recovery of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function.
  • Patients who have been previously maintained on 20 mg or more per day of prednisone (or its equivalent) may be most susceptible, particularly when their systemic corticosteroids have been almost completely withdrawn. During this period of HPA suppression, patients may exhibit signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency when exposed to trauma, surgery, or infections (particularly gastroenteritis) or other conditions with severe electrolyte loss. Although QVAR may provide control of asthmatic symptoms during these episodes, in recommended doses it supplies less than normal physiological amounts of glucocorticoid systemically and does NOT provide the mineralocorticoid that is necessary for coping with these emergencies.
  • During periods of stress or a severe asthmatic attack, patients who have been withdrawn from systemic corticosteroids should be instructed to resume oral corticosteroids (in large doses) immediately and to contact their physician for further instruction. These patients should also be instructed to carry a warning card indicating that they may need supplementary systemic steroids during periods of stress or a severe asthma attack.
  • Patients requiring oral or other systemic corticosteroids should be weaned slowly from oral or other systemic corticosteroid use after transferring to QVAR. Lung function (FEV1 or PEF), beta-agonist use, and asthma symptoms should be carefully monitored during withdrawal of oral or other systemic corticosteroids. In addition to monitoring asthma signs and symptoms, patients should be observed for signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency such as fatigue, lassitude, weakness, nausea and vomiting, and hypotension.
  • Transfer of patients from systemic corticosteroid therapy to QVAR may unmask allergic conditions previously suppressed by the systemic corticosteroid therapy, e.g., rhinitis, conjunctivitis, eczema, arthritis, and eosinophilic conditions.
  • During withdrawal from oral corticosteroids, some patients may experience symptoms of systemically active corticosteroid withdrawal, e.g., joint and/or muscular pain, lassitude, and depression, despite maintenance or even improvement of respiratory function.
  • Immunosuppression
  • Persons who are on drugs which suppress the immune system are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals. Chickenpox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in non-immune children or adults on corticosteroids. In such children or adults who have not had these diseases or been properly immunized, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. It is not known how the dose, route and duration of corticosteroid administration affects the risk of developing a disseminated infection. Nor is the contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment known. If exposed to chickenpox, prophylaxis with varicella-zoster immune globulin (VZIG) may be indicated. If exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated. (See the respective package inserts for complete VZIG and IG prescribing information.) If chickenpox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered.
  • Inhaled corticosteroids should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with active or quiescent tuberculosis infection of the respiratory tract; untreated systemic fungal, bacterial, parasitic or viral infections; or ocular herpes simplex.
  • Paradoxical Bronchospasm
  • Inhaled corticosteroids may produce inhalation induced bronchospasm with an immediate increase in wheezing after dosing that may be life-threatening. If inhalation induced bronchospasm occurs following dosing with QVAR, it should be treated immediately with an inhaled, short-acting bronchodilator. Treatment with QVAR should be discontinued and alternate therapy instituted.
  • Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions
  • QVAR will often help control asthma symptoms with less suppression of HPA function than therapeutically equivalent oral doses of prednisone. Since beclomethasone dipropionate is absorbed into the circulation and can be systemically active at higher doses, the beneficial effects of QVAR in minimizing HPA dysfunction may be expected only when recommended dosages are not exceeded and individual patients are titrated to the lowest effective dose.
  • Because of the possibility of systemic absorption of inhaled corticosteroids, patients treated with QVAR should be observed carefully for any evidence of systemic corticosteroid effects. Particular care should be taken in observing patients postoperatively or during periods of stress for evidence of inadequate adrenal response.
  • It is possible that systemic corticosteroid effects such as hypercorticism and adrenal suppression (including adrenal crisis) may appear in a small number of patients, particularly when beclomethasone dipropionate is administered at higher than recommended doses over prolonged periods of time. If such effects occur, the dosage of QVAR should be reduced slowly, consistent with accepted procedures for reducing systemic corticosteroids and for management of asthma symptoms.
  • Effects on Growth
  • Reduction in Bone Mineral Density
  • Glaucoma and Cataracts
  • Glaucoma, increased intraocular pressure, and cataracts have been reported following the use of long-term administration of inhaled corticosteroids. Therefore, close monitoring is warranted in patients with a change in vision or with a history of increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, and/or cataracts while using QVAR.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

  • Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
  • The following reporting rates of common adverse experiences are based upon 4 clinical trials in which 1196 patients (671 female and 525 male adults previously treated with as-needed bronchodilators and/or inhaled corticosteroids) were treated with QVAR (doses of 40, 80, 160, or 320 mcg twice daily) or CFC-BDP (doses of 42, 168, or 336 mcg twice daily) or placebo. Table 3 below includes all events reported by patients taking QVAR (whether considered drug related or not) that occurred at a rate over 3% for QVAR. In considering these data, difference in average duration of exposure and clinical trial design should be taken into account.
  • Other adverse events that occurred in these clinical trials using QVAR with an incidence of 1% to 3% and which occurred at a greater incidence than placebo were nausea, dysmenorrhea, and coughing. Oropharyngeal candidiasis occurred in <1% of patients in both QVAR and placebo treatment groups.
  • Pediatric Studies
  • In two 12-week placebo-controlled studies in steroid naive pediatric patients 5 to 12 years of age, no clinically relevant differences were found in the pattern, severity, or frequency of adverse events compared with those reported in adults, with the exception of conditions which are more prevalent in a pediatric population generally.

Postmarketing Experience

  • In addition to adverse reactions experienced in the clinical trials, the following adverse events have been reported during post-approval use of QVAR. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Local Effects

Localized infections with Candida albicans have occurred in patients treated with QVAR or other orally inhaled corticosteroids.

Psychiatric and Behavioral Changes

Aggression, depression, sleep disorders, psychomotor hyperactivity, and suicidal ideation have been reported (primarily in children).

Drug Interactions

There is limited information regarding Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation) Drug Interactions in the drug label.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA):

  • Pregnancy Category C
  • Risk Summary
  • There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with QVAR in pregnant women. Animal studies were conducted with beclomethasone dipropionate in rats, mice, and rabbits. Systemic exposure data were not determined in the animal studies. In rats exposed to beclomethasone dipropionate by inhalation at doses greater than 180 times the maximum recommended adult human daily inhalation dose (MRHDID), dose-related gross injury to the fetal adrenal glands was observed. However, there was no evidence of external or skeletal malformations or embryolethality in rats at inhalation doses up to 440 times the MRHDID. Beclomethasone dipropionate was teratogenic (mice and rabbits) and embryolethal (rabbits) at subcutaneous doses equal to or greater than approximately 0.75 times the MRHDID. Beclomethasone dipropionate treatment was embryolethal and caused decreased pup survival in mice at subcutaneous doses equal to or greater than 2.3 times the MRHDID. Beclomethasone dipropionate should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
  • Clinical Considerations
  • Disease-Associated Maternal and Fetal Risk
  • In women with poorly or moderately controlled asthma, evidence demonstrates that there is an increased risk of preeclampsia in the mother and prematurity, low birth weight and small for gestational age for the neonate. The level of asthma control should be closely monitored in pregnant women and treatment adjusted as necessary to maintain optimal control.
  • Animal Data
  • In an embryofetal development study in pregnant rats, beclomethasone dipropionate administration during organogenesis from gestation days 6 to 15 at inhaled doses 180 times the MRHDID (0.64 mg/day) in adults and higher (on a mg/m2 basis at maternal doses of 11.5 and 28.3 mg/kg/day) produced dose-dependent gross injury (characterized by red foci) of the adrenalglands in fetuses. There were no findings in the adrenal glands of rat fetuses at an inhaled dose that was 40 times the MRHDID in adults(on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal dose of 2.4 mg/kg/day). There was no evidence of external or skeletal malformations or embryolethality in rat fetuses at inhaled doses up to 440 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis at maternal doses up to 28.3 mg/kg/day).
  • In an embryofetal development study in pregnant mice, beclomethasone dipropionate administration from gestation days 1 to 18 at subcutaneous doses equal to and greater than 0.75 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m2 basis at maternal doses of 0.1 mg/kg/day and higher) produced teratogenic effects (increased incidence of cleft palate). A no effect dose in mice was not identified. In a second embryofetal development study in pregnant mice, beclomethasone dipropionate administration from gestation days 1 to 13 at subcutaneous doses equal to and greater than 2.3 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal dose of 0.3 mg/kg/day) produced embryolethal effects (increased fetal resorptions) and decreased pup survival.
  • In an embryofetal development study in pregnant rabbits, beclomethasone dipropionate administration during organogenesis from gestation days 7 to 16 at subcutaneous doses equal to and greater than 0.75 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m2 basis at maternal doses of 0.025 mg/kg/day and higher) produced teratogenic (external and skeletal malformations) and embryolethal effects (increased fetal resorptions). There were no effects in fetuses of pregnant rabbits administered a subcutaneous dose 0.2 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal dose of 0.006 mg/kg/day).


Pregnancy Category (AUS):

  • Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category

There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation) in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation) during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • Corticosteroids are secreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when QVAR is administered to a nursing mother.

Pediatric Use

  • Eight-hundred and thirty-four children between the ages of 5 and 12 were treated with HFA beclomethasone dipropionate (HFA-BDP) in clinical trials. The safety and effectiveness of QVAR in children below 5 years of age have not been established.
  • Use of QVAR with a spacer device in children less than 5 years of age is not recommended. In vitro dose characterization studies were performed with QVAR 40 mcg/actuation with the OptiChamber and AeroChamber Plus® spacer utilizing inspiratory flows representative of children under 5 years old. These studies indicated that the amount of medication delivered through the spacing device decreased rapidly with increasing wait times of 5 to 10 seconds as shown in Table 4. If QVAR is used with a spacer device, it is important to inhale immediately.
  • Based on the average inspiratory flow rates generated by children 6 months to 5 years old, the projected daily dose derived from QVAR 40 mcg at one puff per day at various wait times is depicted in Table 4 below:
  • Controlled clinical studies have shown that inhaled corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity in pediatric patients. A 12-month, randomized, controlled clinical trial evaluated the effects of HFA beclomethasone dipropionate without spacer versus CFC beclomethasone dipropionate with large-volume spacer on growth in children age 5 to 11. A total of 520 patients were enrolled, of whom 394 received HFA-BDP (100 to 400 mcg/day ex-valve) and 126 received CFC-BDP (200 to 800 mcg/day ex-valve). Similar control of asthma was noted in each treatment arm. When comparing results at month 12 to baseline, the mean growth velocity in children treated with HFA-BDP was approximately 0.5 cm/year less than that noted with children treated with CFC-BDP via large-volume spacer. The long-term effects of the reduction in growth velocity associated with orally inhaled corticosteroids, including the impact on final adult height, are unknown. The potential for "catch-up" growth following discontinuation of treatment with orally inhaled corticosteroids has not been adequately studied.
  • The growth of children and adolescents receiving orally inhaled corticosteroids, including QVAR, should be monitored routinely (e.g., via stadiometry). If a child or adolescent on any corticosteroid appears to have growth suppression, the possibility that he/she is particularly sensitive to this effect should be considered. The potential growth effects of prolonged treatment should be weighed against clinical benefits obtained and the risks associated with alternative therapies. To minimize the systemic effects of orally inhaled corticosteroids, including QVAR, each patient should be titrated to his/her lowest effective dose.

Geriatic Use

  • Clinical studies of QVAR did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation) with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation) with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation) in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation) in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation) in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation) in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Inhalational

Monitoring

There is limited information regarding Monitoring of Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation) in the drug label.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation) in the drug label.

Overdosage

Chronic Overdose

There is limited information regarding Chronic Overdose of Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation) in the drug label.

Pharmacology

Beclometasone dipropionate.png
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Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation)
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(8S,9R,10S,11S,13S,14S,16S,17R)-9-chloro-11-hydroxy-10,13,16-trimethyl-3-oxo-17-[2-(propionyloxy)acetyl]-6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-dodecahydro-3H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl propionate
Identifiers
CAS number 5534-09-8
ATC code A07EA07 D07AC15 (WHO), R01AD01 (WHO), R03BA01 (WHO)
PubChem 21700
DrugBank DB00394
Chemical data
Formula C28H37ClO7 
Mol. mass 521.042 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Converted to beclometasone-17-monopropionate (17-BMP) during absorption
Protein binding 87% of 17-BMP to albumin and transcortin
Metabolism By esterase enzymes found in most tissues
Half life 2.8 hours
Excretion Biliary (60%), renal (12%)
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

B3(AU)

Legal status

Pharmacy Only (S2)(AU) POM(UK)

Routes Oral and nasal inhalation, topical

Mechanism of Action

  • Beclomethasone dipropionate is a prodrug that is rapidly activated by hydrolysis to the active monoester, 17 monopropionate (17-BMP). Beclomethasone 17 monopropionate has been shown in vitro to exhibit a binding affinity for the human glucocorticoid receptor which is approximately 13 times that of dexamethasone, 6 times that of triamcinolone acetonide, 1.5 times that of budesonide and 25 times that of beclomethasone dipropionate. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown.
  • Studies in patients with asthma have shown a favorable ratio between topical anti-inflammatory activity and systemic corticosteroid effects with recommended doses ofQVAR.

Structure

  • The active component of QVAR 40 mcg Inhalation Aerosol and QVAR 80 mcg Inhalation Aerosol is beclomethasone dipropionate, USP, a corticosteroid having the chemical name 9-chloro-11ß,17,21-trihydroxy-16ß-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione 17,21-dipropionate. Beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) is a diester of beclomethasone, a synthetic corticosteroid chemically related to dexamethasone. Beclomethasone differs from dexamethasone in having a chlorine at the 9-alpha carbon in place of a fluorine, and in having a 16 beta-methyl group instead of a 16 alpha-methyl group. Beclomethasone dipropionate is a white to creamy white, odorless powder with a molecular formula of C28H37ClO7 and a molecular weight of 521.1. Its chemical structure is:
  • QVAR is a pressurized, metered-dose aerosol with a dose counter intended for oral inhalation only. Each unit contains a solution of beclomethasone dipropionate in propellant HFA-134a (1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane) and ethanol. QVAR 40 mcg delivers 40 mcg of beclomethasone dipropionate from the actuator and 50 mcg from the valve. QVAR 80 mcg delivers 80 mcg of beclomethasone dipropionate from the actuator and 100 mcg from the valve. Both products deliver 50 microliters (59 milligrams) of solution formulation from the valve with each actuation. The 40 mcg canisters and the 80 mcg canisters provide 120 inhalations each. QVAR should be "primed" or actuated twice prior to taking the first dose from a new canister, or when the inhaler has not been used for more than 10 days. Avoid spraying in the eyes or face while priming QVAR. This product does not contain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

Pharmacodynamics

  • HPA Axis Effects
  • The effects of QVAR on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were studied in 40 corticosteroid-naive patients. QVAR, at doses of 80, 160 or 320 mcg twice daily was compared with placebo and 336 mcg twice daily of beclomethasone dipropionate in a CFC propellant based formulation (CFC-BDP). Active treatment groups showed an expected dose-related reduction in 24-hour urinary-free cortisol (a sensitive marker of adrenal production of cortisol). Patients treated with the highest dose recommended of QVAR (320 mcg twice daily) had a 37.3% reduction in 24-hour urinary-free cortisol compared to a reduction of 47.3% produced by treatment with 336 mcg twice daily of CFC-BDP. There was a 12.2% reduction in 24-hour urinary-free cortisol seen in the group of patients that received 80 mcg twice daily of QVAR and a 24.6% reduction in the group of patients that received 160 mcg twice daily. An open label study of 354 asthma patients given QVAR at recommended doses for one year assessed the effect of QVAR treatment on the HPA axis (as measured by both morning and stimulated plasma cortisol). Less than 1% of patients treated for one year with QVAR had an abnormal response (peak less than 18 mcg/dL) to short-cosyntropin test.

Pharmacokinetics

  • Beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) undergoes rapid and extensive conversion to beclomethasone-17-monopropionate (17-BMP) during absorption. The pharmacokinetics of 17-BMP has been studied in asthmatics given single doses.
  • Absorption: The mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of BDP was 88 pg/ml at 0.5 hour after inhalation of 320 mcg using QVAR (4 actuations of the 80 mcg/actuation strength). The mean peak plasma concentration of the major and most active metabolite, 17-BMP, was 1419 pg/ml at 0.7 hour after inhalation of 320 mcg of QVAR. When the same nominal dose is provided by the two QVAR strengths (40 and 80 mcg/actuation), equivalent systemic pharmacokinetics can be expected. The Cmax of 17-BMP increased dose proportionally in the dose range of 80 and 320 mcg.
  • Metabolism: Three major metabolites are formed via cytochrome P450-3A catalyzed biotransformation: beclomethasone-17-monopropionate (17-BMP), beclomethasone-21-monopropionate (21-BMP) and beclomethasone (BOH). Lung slices metabolize BDP rapidly to 17-BMP and more slowly to BOH. 17-BMP is the most active metabolite.
  • Distribution: The in vitro protein binding for 17-BMP was reported to be 94-96% over the concentration range of 1000 to 5000 pg/mL. Protein binding was constant over the concentration range evaluated. There is no evidence of tissue storage of BDP or its metabolites.
  • Elimination: The major route of elimination of inhaled BDP appears to be via hydrolysis. More than 90% of inhaled BDP is found as 17-BMP in the systemic circulation. The mean elimination half-life of17-BMP is 2.8 hours. Irrespective of the route of administration (injection, oral or inhalation), BDP and its metabolites are mainly excreted in the feces. Less than 10% of the drug and its metabolites are excreted in the urine.
  • Special Populations: Formal pharmacokinetic studies using QVAR were not conducted in any special populations.
  • Pediatrics: The pharmacokinetics of 17-BMP, including dose and strength proportionalities, is similar in children and adults, although the exposure is highly variable. In 17 children (mean age 10 years), the Cmax of 17-BMP was 787 pg/ml at 0.6 hour after inhalation of 160 mcg (4 actuations of the 40 mcg/actuation strength of HFA beclomethasone dipropionate). The systemic exposure to 17-BMP from 160 mcg of HFA-BDP administered without a spacer was comparable to the systemic exposure to 17-BMP from 336 mcgCFC-BDP administered with a large volume spacer in 14 children (mean age 12 years). This implies that approximately twice the systemic exposure to 17-BMP would be expected for comparable mg doses of HFA-BDP without a spacer and CFC-BDP with a large volumespacer.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
  • The carcinogenicity of beclomethasone dipropionate was evaluated in rats which were exposed for a total of 95 weeks, 13 weeks at inhalation doses up to 0.4 mg/kg/day and the remaining 82 weeks at combined oral and inhalation doses up to 2.4 mg/kg/day. There was no evidence of treatment-related increases in the incidence of tumors in this study at the highest dose, which is approximately 37 and 72 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults and children, respectively, on a mg/m2 basis.
  • Beclomethasone dipropionate did not induce gene mutation in bacterial cells or mammalian Chinese Hamster ovary (CHO) cells in vitro. No significant clastogenic effect was seen in cultured CHO cells in vitro or in the mouse micronucleus test in vivo.
  • In rats, beclomethasone dipropionate caused decreased conception rates at an oral dose of 16 mg/kg/day (approximately 250 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on a mg/m2 basis). Impairment of fertility, as evidenced by inhibition of the estrous cycle in dogs, was observed following treatment by the oral route at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day (approximately 25 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on a mg/m2 basis). No inhibition of the estrous cycle in dogs was seen following 12 months of exposure to beclomethasone dipropionate by the inhalation route at an estimated daily dose of 0.33 mg/kg (approximately 17 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on a mg/m2basis).

Clinical Studies

  • Blinded, randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled and active-controlled clinical studies were conducted in 940 adult asthma patients to assess the efficacy and safety of QVAR in the treatment of asthma. Fixed doses ranging from 40 mcg to 160 mcg twice daily were compared to placebo, and doses ranging from 40 mcg to 320 mcg twice daily were compared with doses of 42 mcg to 336 mcg twice daily of an active CFC-BDP comparator. These studies provided information about appropriate dosing through a range of asthma severity. A blinded, randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 353 pediatric patients (age 5 to 12 years) to assess the efficacy and safety of HFA beclomethasone dipropionate in the treatment of asthma.Fixed doses of 40 mcg and 80 mcg twice daily were compared with placeboin thisstudy. In these adult and pediatric efficacy trials, at the doses studied, measures of pulmonary function [forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and morning peak expiratory flow (AM PEF)] and asthma symptoms were significantly improved with QVAR treatment when compared to placebo.
  • In controlled clinical trials with adult patients not adequately controlled with beta-agonist alone, QVAR was effective at improving asthma control at doses as low as 40 mcg twice daily (80 mcg/day). Comparable asthma control was achieved at lower daily doses of QVAR than with CFC-BDP. Treatment with increasing doses of both QVAR and CFC-BDP generally resulted in increased improvement in FEV1. In this trial the improvement in FEV1 across doses was greater for QVAR than for CFC-BDP, indicating a shift in the doseresponse curve for QVAR.
Adult and Adolescent Patients Greater Than 12 Years of Age
  • Patients not Previously Receiving Corticosteroid Therapy: In a 6-week clinical trial, 270 steroid-naive patients with symptomatic asthma being treated with as-needed beta-agonist bronchodilators, were randomized to receive either 40 mcg twice daily of QVAR, 80 mcg twice daily of QVAR, or placebo. Both doses of QVAR were effective in improving asthma control with significantly greater improvements in FEV1, AM PEF, and asthma symptoms than with placebo. Shown below is the change from baseline in AM PEF during this trial.
  • In a 6-week clinical trial, 256 patients with symptomatic asthma being treated with as-needed beta-agonist bronchodilators, were randomized to receive either 160 mcg twice-daily of QVAR (delivered as either 40 mcg/actuation or 80 mcg/actuation) or placebo. Treatment with QVAR significantly improved asthma control, as assessed by FEV1, AM PEF, and asthma symptoms, when compared to treatment with placebo. Comparable improvement in AM PEF was seen for patients receiving 160 mcg twice-daily QVAR fromthe 40 mcg and 80 mcg strength products.
  • Patients Responsive to a Short Course of Oral Corticosteroids: In another clinical trial, 347 patients with symptomatic asthma, being treated with as-needed inhaled beta-agonist bronchodilators and, in some cases, inhaled corticosteroids, were given a 7 to 12-day course of oral corticosteroids and then randomized to receive either 320 mcg daily of QVAR, 672 mcg of CFC-BDP, or placebo. Patients treated with either QVAR or CFC-BDP had significantly better asthma control, as assessed by AM PEF, FEV1 and asthma symptoms, and fewer study withdrawals due to asthma symptoms, than those treated with placebo over 12 weeks of treatment. A daily dose of 320 mcg QVAR administered in divided doses provided comparable control of AM PEF and FEV1 as 672 mcg of CFC-BDP. Shown beloware themeanAM PEF results from this trial.
  • Patients Previously on Inhaled Corticosteroids: In a 6-week clinical trial, 323 patients who exhibited a deterioration in asthma control during an inhaled corticosteroid washout period were randomized to daily treatment with either 40, 160, or 320 mcg twice-daily QVAR or 42, 168 or 336 mcg twice-daily CFC-BDP. Treatment with increasing doses of both QVAR and CFC-BDP resulted in increased improvement in FEV1, FEF25-75% (forced expiratory flow over 25-75% of the vital capacity) and asthma symptoms. Shown below is the change from baseline in FEV1 as percent predicted after 6 weeks of treatment.
Pediatric Patients 5 to 12 Years of Age
  • In one 12-week clinical trial, pediatric patients (age 5 to 12 years) with symptomatic asthma (N=353) being treated with as-needed beta-agonist bronchodilators were randomized to receive either 40 mcg or 80 mcg twice daily of HFA beclomethasone dipropionate or placebo. Both doses were effective in improving asthma control with significantly greater improvements in FEV1 (9% and 10% predicted change from baseline at week 12 in FEV1 percent predicted, respectively) than with placebo (4% predicted change).

How Supplied

  • QVAR is supplied in 2 strengths:
  • QVAR 40 mcg is supplied in a box of one 8.7 g canister containing 120 actuations with a beige plastic actuator with a dose counter and gray dust cap, and Patient Information and Instructions for Use; box of one; 120 Actuations – NDC 59310-202-12.
  • QVAR 80 mcg is supplied in a box of one 8.7 g canister containing 120 actuations with a dark mauve plastic actuator with a dose counter and gray dust cap, and Patient Information and Instructions for Use; box of one; 120 Actuations – NDC 59310-204-12.
  • The correct amount of medication in each inhalation cannot be assured after 120 actuations from the 8.7 g canister even though the canister is not completely empty. Patients should be informed todiscard theQVAR inhaler when the dose counter displays 0 or after the expirationdate on the product, whichever comes first.
  • Storage and Handling
  • Store at 25ºC (77ºF).
  • Excursions between 15º and 30ºC (59º and 86ºF) are permitted (see USP Controlled Room Temperature). For optimal results, the canister should be at room temperature when used. QVAR Inhalation Aerosol canister should only be used with the QVAR Inhalation Aerosol actuator and the actuator should not be used with any other inhalation drug product.
  • Store QVAR Inhalation Aerosol when not being used, so that the product rests on the concave end of the canister with plastic actuator on top.
  • CONTENTS UNDER PRESSURE
  • Do not puncture. Do not use or store near heat or open flame. Exposure to temperatures above 49ºC (120ºF) may cause bursting. Never throw container into fire or incinerator.
  • Keep out of reach of children.

Storage

There is limited information regarding Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation) Storage in the drug label.

Images

Drug Images

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Package and Label Display Panel

Patient Counseling Information

  • Advise the patients to read the FDA-approved patient labeling(Patient Information and Instructions for Use).
Risks Associated with Corticosteroid Therapy
  • Local Effects: Advise patients that localized infections with Candida albicans have occurred in the mouth and pharynx in some patients. If oropharyngeal candidiasis develops, it should be treated with appropriate local or systemic (i.e., oral) antifungal therapy while still continuing with QVAR therapy, but at times therapy with QVAR may need to be temporarily interrupted under close medical supervision. Rinsing the mouth after inhalation is advised.
  • Immunosuppression: Warn patients who are on immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids to avoid exposure to chickenpox or measles and, if exposed, to consult their physician without delay. Inform patients of potential worsening of existing tuberculosis, fungal, bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections, or ocular herpes simplex.
  • Reduction in Bone Mineral Density: Advise patients who are at an increased risk for decreased BMD that the use of corticosteroids may pose an additional risk and that they should be monitored and, where appropriate, be treated for this condition.
  • Reduced Growth Velocity: Inform patients that orally inhaled corticosteroids, including QVAR, may cause a reduction in growth velocity when administered to pediatric patients. Physicians should closely follow the growth of pediatric patients taking corticosteroids by any route.
  • Glaucoma and Cataracts: Long-term use of inhaled corticosteroids may increase the risk of some eye problems (glaucoma or cataracts); regular eye examinations should be considered.
Not for Acute Symptoms
  • Advise patients that QVAR is not intended for use in the treatment of acute asthma. Acute asthma symptoms should be treated with an inhaled, short-acting beta-2 agonist such as albuterol. Instruct the patient to contact their healthcare provider immediately if there is any deterioration of their asthma [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Susceptibility to Infections
  • Warn persons who are on immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids to avoid exposure to chickenpox or measles and, if exposed, to consult their physician without delay. Inform patients of potential worsening of existing tuberculosis, fungal, bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections, or ocular herpes simplex[ see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Use Daily for Best Effect
  • Advise patients to use QVAR at regular intervals, since its effectiveness depends on regular use. Maximum benefit may not be achieved for 1 week or longer after starting treatment. If symptoms do not improve after 2 weeks of therapy or if the condition worsens, patients should be instructed to contact their physician.
Proper Use and Care of the Inhaler
  • Priming: Priming is essential to ensure appropriate beclomethasone dipropionate content in each actuation. Instruct patients to prime the inhaler before using for the first time and in cases where the inhaler has not been used for more than 10 days by releasing two sprays into the air, away from the face.
  • Cleaning: For normal hygiene, the mouthpiece of the inhaler should be cleaned weekly with a clean, dry tissue or cloth. DO NOT WASH OR PUT ANY PART OF THE INHALER IN WATER.
  • Dose Counter: Inform patients that QVAR has a dose counter attached to the actuator. When the patient receives the inhaler, a black dot will appear in the viewing window until it has been primed 2 times, at which point the total number of actuations will be displayed. The dose counter will count down each time a spray is released. The dose-counter window displays the number of sprays left in the inhaler in units of two (e.g., 120, 118, 116, etc). When the counter displays 20, the color of the numbers will change to red to remind the patient to contact their pharmacist for a refill of medication or consult their physician for a prescription refill. When the dose counter reaches 0, the background will change to solid red. Inform patients to discard the QVAR inhaler when the dose counter displays 0 or after the expiration date on the product, whichever comes first.
Discontinuing QVAR
  • Do not stop QVAR use abruptly. Instruct the patient to contact their healthcare provider immediately if use of QVAR is discontinued.

Precautions with Alcohol

  • Alcohol-Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation) interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

Look-Alike Drug Names

There is limited information regarding Beclomethasone dipropionate (inhalation) Look-Alike Drug Names in the drug label.

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. "QVAR beclomethasone dipropionate aerosol, metered".

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